Regardless of period, location, natural environment, and population density, human communities have been regulated by norms of governance. While those norms co-evolve at the level of the species, they retain local differences and adaptations, and they do not teleologically converge toward a single civilizational model. Such normative and institutional differences often pass for a failure of governance, or even for ungovernance in the case of simple societies judged by more complex ones. Colonialism and imperialism put pressure on all societies around the world to adopt notions of governance and a common set of institutions pioneered by European states. The emergence of political Islam as an alternative to Western models, and in particular the expansion of jihadism in the resource-poor areas of the Muslim world, reminds us that history has not reached its end and that forms of governance will continue to evolve.


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pp. 29-38
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