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THE GLORIOUS KINGDOM OF SAGUENAY HE Glorious Kingdom of Saguenay hadno moreexistence than Olympusof the Gods. But, like Olympus,Saguenaywas thought to exist, and the men who had this thought found it a powerfuldrivingforceto action. Very often,in the livesof men, not the truth, but what they feelto be the truth, is important, and must be soughtout with care and precision. For what men have believedto be factshasalwaysbeenthe dynamicfact of history. When JacquesCartier, the Captain and Pilot to the King of France,droppedanchorin St. Malo Bay, on the Brittany coast, early in September,1534,hisoutlookwasfar fromoneof complete satisfaction.• He had returned from a voyage whose purpose had been to uncover a source of wealth and gold in the New World2 He broughtbacknogreattreasures, but hewasableto leadashore, onto the streets of the ancient seaport, two Canadian Indians, Taignoagny and Dom Agaya. a Thesecolourfulcharacters,no doubt, served to arouse and maintain official interest in another voyage to the western waters. The followingspring,the captain-pilotembarkedonceagainin quest of treasures,and the two Indians sailedwith him.4 His little flotilla crossedthe North Atlantic, and, as it worked westwardpastAnticostiIslandinto the St. Lawrence,the homecoming aborigines, claimingto recognize the landmarks,announced that onlytwodays'journeyto thewestbeganthelimitsofthe Kingdom of the Saguenay. 5 In this manner, on Friday, August 13, 1535, the fabulousdomain of Saguenaycameinto the white man's ken. For a decadethis was"to be an ignisfatuusfor Frenchexplorers. "6 •H. P. Biggar(ed.), "The Voyagesof JacquesCartier" (Publications of thePublic Archives ofCanada, no.11,1924,79). Cartierarrivedin FranceonSeptember 5, 1534. •H. P. B[ggar(ed.),"A Collection of Documents Relatingto Jacques Cartierand the Sieur de Roberval" (Publicationsof thePublic Archivesof Canada, no. 14, 1930, 42, Grant to Cartier, March 18, 1533-4). aThe material results of the first voyage were furs and a few trinkets which the Indians traded for knivesand bits of cloth (Biggar, ed., "Voyagesof Cartier," 52-3, 56). The father of the two Indians granted permission to the French to take his sonsacross the water (ibid., 66-7). This wason July 24, 1534,on the GaspdPeninsula(ibid., 64). The namesof the natives are not mentioneduntil after the secondvoyage had started (ibid., 120). 4Biggar(ed.), "Voyagesof Cartier," 90-1; they setsailonMay 19,1535,and made their landfallonJuly 7, off Newfoundland(ibid., 93-4). •Ibid., 102-3. 6Arthur G. Doughty, "The Beginningsof Canada" (Canada and Its Provinces, Adam Shortt, Arthur G. Doughty (eds.), Toronto, 1914-17,I, 34), givesthis apt and pithyphrase fortheKingdom ofSaguenay.TheliteratureontheKingdomofSaguenay is not plentiful;it is generallyreferredto only in passing.The Canad4an Historical Review,for example,in its quarter-centuryof existence,has no article about it; the Bulletin desrecherches historiques, publishedsince1895, has had only one comment, 39O CANAmANH•STOR•CAL I•VmW, vol. XXXI, no. 4, Dec., 1950. THE GLORIOUS KINGDOM OF SAGUENAY 391 The Canadian tribe of Indians,7kinsmenof the pair who had been to France, made only occasionaland fleeting referencesto Saguenay, 8and it was not until Octoberthat the French learned more about it. Cartier and a few of his companionstravelled up the St. Lawrence to Hochelaga, where the characteristics of Saguenay wererevealed in a moreliberalfashion. 9 Pointingto the goldandsilverinsigniaof theexplorers, the Indians--by signsand LMI,•'I'ASS IN I GULL LAKE OUEBEC o- 50 MAP 1. South-eastern Canada. gestures--made it knownthat thesemetalscamefromthe northwest , where bellicosetribes carried on incessantwarfare2ø As if to test hisinformers,Cartier held a copperobject beforethem, but the nativesonly pointedsouth,indicatingthat no copperwas to be found in Saguenay. and that wasat the primerstageof history:"En padant du Saguenay on dit souvent 'leroyaurae deSaguenay.' Quis'estservilepremier decetteappellation? C'estJacques Cartier.... "(XIII, 1907, 30.) 7According to Carrier's informers, therewerethreenations ofIndians livingin the general vicinityoftheSt.Lawrence River:(1)theCanadians, whodweltaboutQuebec (Biggar, ed.,"Voyages ofCartier,"119,9•9•7); (9•) theHochelaga tribe,which livedabout Montreal(ibid.,1õ4-õ); and(3) theSaguenais, whoinha..bited thelands tothermrth-west (seeMap 1). 8Biggat (ed.),"Voyages ofCartier," 1015-0, 11S-14,110,101. 9Ibid., 141-151. •9Ibid,,170-1. Therewereno interpreters, Taignoagny and Dom Agayahaving refused to accompany the French(ibid., 140). 392 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW LeavingHochelaga,the Frenchmenreturnedto their anchorage near the Canadianvillage of Stadacona. n During the harshand tediouswinter that followed,the conversationturned occasionally to the mysteriousSaguenais? The French were informed that they dweltin a...