It is often argued that there is an intimate connection between Islamic philosophy and Shi͑i culture. It is certainly true that most Islamic philosophers were Shi͑i, and parts of the Shi͑i world appear to be far more sympathetic to philosophical enquiry than is the case in a Sunni environment. An explanation of this could be that most Islamic philosophers are from the Persian cultural sphere, which became Shi͑i, and those national origins and not the doctrinal divide could be the relevant factor. It could also be that since some of the Sunni world became antagonistic to philosophy, enthusiasm for it was a potent way to oppose that world. Finally, it is sometimes argued that Shi͑ism is particularly close to mysticism and so to philosophy, but this is difficult to accept since all kinds of Muslims have been attracted to taṣawwuf and the latter does not seem to be linked with any particular doctrinal division in Islam. The conclusion is that there is no discernible reason for the apparent fact that philosophy is more integrated in the Shi͑a as compared with the Sunni world.