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LEONARDO, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 137–140, 2000 137© 2000 ISAST The Media Arts Dictionary project was born out of the desire to name and define the many and varied forms of art that have developed in conjunction with technology. A whole lexicon is being created to describe the many processes, techniques, instruments, critical and aesthetic concepts—in short, the entire emerging culture—of this immense laboratory workshop. The original electronic version of this dictionary (in French) contains about 2,000 entries, illustrations, examples of works, references and comments from artists and experts (URL: Accueil.html). English translations of selected dictionary entries can be found at the following Web site: . In several issues of the journal, Leonardo will publish excerpts from the dictionary, grouped by subject matter or field. The terms selected for this installment are definitions of various art forms related to new media. The terms and definitions have thus far been chosen by the Groupe de recherche en arts médiatiques (GRAM); however, interested artists and researchers are invited to submit additions and comments to Section Editor Louise Poissant [1]. These contributions will be added to the electronic version of the dictionary , with credit given to the authors. In this way, the dictionary project will gradually become a collective project in which all significant contributions will find a place. DICTIONARY TERMS—PART I computer animation—computer graphics process in which successive images are generated and displayed in order to create the perception of movement or morphing effects. There are three main trends in computer animation. In the first, the animator uses a computer and palette to work with digitized images . As a rule, the animator creates the work one image at a time. In the second trend, the artist first designs the Sketchpad. Computer graphics applications did not become interactive until the introduction of display screens. Prior to that, producing images from a computer required flatbed or graphics plotters, which took a fairly long time to print a drawing or graphic image— up to a half-hour or more. With computer -aided design (CAD), engineers and architects can draw, modify and transform their diagrams and plans as projects develop. copy art—artistic practice in which normal copier functions are used in unusual ways to create art. The combination of the words “copy” and “art” defines the spirit of this practice, which lies outside traditional market values, in that copy art strives to blur the distinction between original art and reproduction . Copy art designates any unusual method of using copiers as a means of expression, independent of the type of copier (thermographic, chemical, electrostatic , digital or analog). The term “copy art,” which preceded the terms “copygraphy” and “electrography,” is used internationally. Copy art first appeared in the United States in the early 1960s. It then spread to Canada, Italy and other countries in Europe. It is a spontaneous artistic practice in that it has never led to the formation of any group. Initially it was associated with Pop Art and mail art. In general, there are three periods in copy art: 1950–1968, first generation (blackand -white works); 1968–1980, second generation (colored works and analog copiers); 1980 and later, third generation (colored works and digital copiers). holography—optical technique used to record, on a photosensitive medium, the interference pattern created by complex wavefronts reflected from an object that is illuminated by a coherent light beam (called an object beam) and by the parallel wavefronts of a coherent light beam (called a reference beam), in order to obtain a three-dimensional, transparent light-image. From the Greek words “holos” (total, complete) and “gramma” (letter, writing): complete recording. There are various holographic techniques, but holograms can generally be described as a type of NEW MEDIA DICTIONARY animation elements, then assigns parameters that govern their movements and transformations. Lighting, camera angles and formal attributes of the objects and settings (color, shape and texture ) can also be precisely set. Movements and transformations are defined by a key opening frame and a key closing frame selected by the artist. The computer uses interpolation techniques to calculate the intermediate images. The third trend makes use of “behavioral ” data...


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