Business organizations are increasingly competing to secure key resources such as scarce raw materials, patentable technologies, transportation capacity, channels of distribution, and preferential customer status. This competition, termed factor market rivalry (FMR), has implications for supply chain theory and managerial practice, especially in the transportation sector. In this article, we adopt a conceptual theory-building approach in order to influence future discourse on FMR. Specifically, we integrate existing literature to develop a typology of the mechanisms through which FMR can affect firm performance and introduce a framework illustrating the different types of actions firms can take in response to FMR and to utilize FMR to complement existing competitive repertoires. We describe theoretical and managerial implications and suggest several directions for future research.