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Toussaint Louverture’s 1801 constitution for colonial Saint Domingue includes significant revisions to the 1789 Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen. These revisions have gone entirely unnoticed in recent scholarship. They entail a trenchant analysis of the logic of universalist rights and their relationship to racial slavery and racism, tie the ban on slavery to the existential and historical reality of Atlantic slavery, and create an entirely novel subject of rights. The 1801 constitution thus needs to be recognized as a central document in intellectual history and the history of human rights.