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  • Transliteration

Note: In some words and names of Persian origin, ‘e’ and ‘o’ have been used in lieu of ‘i’ and ‘u’ to conform to standard spellings.

TRANSLITERATION KEY:

Arab./Pers./Urdu Letter Roman Equivalent
ء
ا a
ب b
پ p
ت t
ٹ
ث th
ج j
ch
ح
خ kh
د d
ذ dh
ر r
ز z
zh
س s
Arab./Pers./Urdu Letter Roman Equivalent
ش sh
ص
ض
ط
ظ
ع
غ gh
ف f
ق q
ك k
گ g
ل l
م m
ن n
ه h
و w
ى y
ة h or t
Short Vowels
ـَــ a
ـُــ u
ـِــ i
Long Vowels
آ or ā
ū
ī
Diphthongs
aw
ay

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Additional Information

ISSN
2051-557X
Print ISSN
1748-9423
Pages
p. 537
Launched on MUSE
2016-03-15
Open Access
No
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