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When the science of Judaism (Wissenschaft des Judentums) evolved at the beginning of the nineteenth century, it intended both theological and secular studies to prove the general value of Jewish culture and civilization. Access to the public university system was denied until after the Shoah. Since then, Jewish studies has been established at various German universities and, in 2013, the School of Jewish Theology of the University of Potsdam was opened. With that, what was once a utopia became a reality, and both branches of the science of Judaism, religious and secular, have become an undisputed part of the German academic scene: using similar tools for differing aims.