A key issue in China’s strategic agenda is to optimise its national security strategy. As China adjusts both its development and international strategies, the scope of its national security issues has rapidly expanded, external threats and challenges to its national security have become complicated, and China has begun to face greater constraints in protecting and promoting its interests. For the purpose of optimising its national security strategy, China should first concentrate on improving its national strength and ensuring domestic security, which will provide a safe foundation for its national security. China could then transform its strength into international influence and contribute to the building of a peaceful development global system. It is in this context that the establishment of a fully functional National Security Council (NSC) was included in the agenda, aiming to offer a top-level solution to significant issues related to security and diplomatic challenges. It is argued that the NSC should focus on the decision-making of key strategic issues related to territory and territorial waters, diplomacy, military, natural resources, economy, etc., to ensure effective implementation of national security strategies that respond effectively and forcefully to emergency issues, either domestic or abroad.