The “Revisionist” controversy grew from England’s frayed postwar consensus. Historians had sought socioeconomic causes of the civil war, but Conrad Russell brilliantly asserted the political and the short term. What then of underlying pressures? “Revisionism” soon fractured amid implausible assertions of consensus, but while Russell attributed disruption to England’s neighbors, others explored the exuberance of England’s “political culture,” or stressed the Reformation century’s religious passions. But was England’s civil war a “war of religion”? Such claims attend neither to England’s political assumptions, nor to the nature of violence or human motivation, nor to the role of language.