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This article offers an analysis of the emergence, use, and current popularity of the concept of the Anthropocene. It argues that much of the idea’s success derives from its seamless usability within established frameworks of Enlightenment thinking about history and modernity. The article then considers two challenges to the current casting of the Anthropocene. The first revolves around the periodization of the Anthropocene and the second around the kinds of human and nonhuman agency and politics it produces and precludes.