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like hues are thus realized. In addition, in response to certain nervous or hormonal signals, the spacing between adjacent platelets changes concurrently, resulting in a shift of the spectral reflectance peak. In other words, continuous changes of hue-such as violet to yellow via blue and green-can take place 171. The motile activitiesof chromatophores (Fig. 1)are dependent on the intracellular presence of motor-proteins -namely, tubulin, dynein and kinesin-and are regulated by the endocrine and/or the nervous systems [8].We have clarified that the rapid aggregation of pigment granules, the chromatosomes, is aroused by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system,via alpha adrenoceptors possessed by the chromatophores [9]. We have also shown that, among endocrines , melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and epinephrine take leading parts in the control of chromatophores . (MSHdisperses pigmentary organelles, while MCH and melatonin normally aggregate them in chromatophores. MSH disperses pigmentary organelles [lo], while MCH [111and melatonin [121 normally aggregate them in chromatophores [13].) In many species, such as pencilfish, the pineal hormone melatonin may function in the circadian changes of color patterns [141.We also found that endothelinsaggregate chromatosomes in melanophores, erythrophores and xanthophores, and disperse them in leucophores. Our conclusion was that endothelinsare involved in the formation of patterns [15]. Our recent studies further indicated that nitric oxide (NO), a substance recently identified as the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in mammalian vascular systems , may also be involved in the subtle control of skin coloration. It may be astonishing to hear that so many factors are involved in the control of chromatophoresin fish. Indeed, we are not aware of other effector cells (beyond those discussed here) that are regulated by so many kinds of physiological cues. The mechanisms of color manifestation as well as those controlling coloration in fish provide much useful information for humans. References 1. R. Fujii, ”Cytophysiologyof Fish Chromatophores ,” IntmationalReview of Cyfology143 (1993) pp. 192-255. 2. R. Fujii, ’Chromatophores and Pigments,” in W.S. Hoar and DJ. Randall, eds., Fish Physiology, Vol. 3 (NewYork Academic Press, 1969); see also R. Fujii, ”Coloration and Chromatophores,” in D.H. Evans, ed., ThePhysiology ojFishes (Boca Raton, F L CRC Press, 1993). 3. M. Goda and R. Fujii, “Blue Chromatophores in Two Species of Callionymyd Fish,” Zoological Science 11(1995) pp. 527-535. 4. Fuji [l]. 5. Fujii, ”Coloration and Chromatophores” [21. 6. H. Kasukawa, N. Oshima and R. F$ii, “Mechanism of Light Reflection in Blue Damselfish lridophore,” ZoologicalScience 4 (1987) pp. 243-257. 7. See Kasukawa et al. [6];see also Fujii, “Coloration and Chromatophores” [21. 8. See Fujii, ”Coloration and Chromatophores” [21. 9. R. Fujii and Y. Miyashita, “ReceptorMechanisms in Fish Chromatophores-1. Alpha Nature of Adrenoceptors Mediating Melanosome Aggregation in Guppy Melanophores,” Comparative Biochemisfry and Physiology 51C (1975) pp. 171-178. 10. R. Fujii and Y. Miyashita,“ReceptorMechanisms in Fish Chromatophores-V. MSH Disperses Melanosomes in Both Dermal and Epidermal Melanophores of Catfish (Parasiluncs asofus),” Comparative Biochemistry and PhysiorogY 71C (1982) pp. 1-6. 11.N. Oshima, H. Kasukawa, R. Fujii, B.C. Wilkes, V.J. Hruby and M.E. Hadley, “Action of MelaninConcentrating Hormone (MCH) on Teleost Chromatophores ,” General and CornparaliveEndom’nology 64 (1986) pp. 381-388. 12.R. Fujii and Y. Miyashita, “ReceptorMechanisms in Fish Chromatophores-IV. Effect of Melatonin and Related Substances on Dermal and Epidermal Melanophores of the Siluroid, Parasilurus asotus,” ComparativeBiorhemistry and Physiology 59C (1978) pp. 59-63. 13. Y. Miyashita and R. Fujii, “ReceptorMechanisms in Fish Chromatophores-11. Evidence for Beta Adrenoceptors Mediating Melanosome Dispersion in Guppy Melanophores,” ComparafiveBiochemisfryand Physiology 51C (1975) pp. 179-187. 14. H. Nislii and R. Fujii, “NovelReceptors for Melatonin that Mediate Pigment Dispersion Are Present in Some Melanophores of the Pencilfish (Nunnosfomus),” Comparative Biochmisfryand Physiology 103C (1992) pp. 363-368. 15.R. Fujii, Y.Tanaka and H. Hayashi, ’Endothelin-1 Causes Aggregation of Pigment in Teleostean Melanophores,” fiologiCa1 Science 10 (1993) pp. 763-772. HOW TO PREPARE A CORNUCOPLAOF NEW SUBSTANCES LpPd Furka, Advanced ChemTech, Inc., 5609 Fern Valley Road, Louisville, KY40228, U.S.A. E-mail: . The work reported in this Abstract was awarded the 1996LVMH Vinci of Excellence Prize. What should one do if asked to list all...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1530-9282
Print ISSN
0024-094X
Pages
pp. 42-43
Launched on MUSE
2017-01-04
Open Access
No
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