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with distance, as so many artists, including Rubens, have assumed [2J. A large number of paintings by a host of artists other than Turner, Constable and Friedrich, who are known for their meteorology, have literal skies [3 J. Among them are Piero della Francesca's statuesque Baptism of Christ (c. 1450, National Gallery, London ) with its unmoving mountain wave clouds, Lucas Cranach 's turbulent Crucifixion (1503, Alte Pinakothek , Munich) with its boiling mammatus at the lower edge of a severe thunderstorm, Vermeer's bright View ofDelft (c. 1661 Mauritshuis , The Hague) with its smoothedged dissipating cloud deck seen only in the wake of departing lowpressure areas, and even Edvard Munch's cadaverous Scream (1893, National Gallery, Oslo) with its bloodred mountain wave clouds at sunset. What 1 found surprising when I first began my study of van Gogh's meteorology was how many of his 104 Comnu-nuuu-s skies represent almost literal copies of actual skies. Ursula Seibold has correctly pointed out that Fig. 4 in my article is a chalk-and-pen drawing. She also indicated that some con troversy still exists concerning the degree of influence of Luke Howard's work on clouds on John Constable, although documentary evidence found bv Thomes [4J and Schweizer[5] only strengthen Badt's arguments. Finally, I hope that Seibold will forgive me but her comment distinguishing art from 'mere' illustration gives me a unique opportunity to put the shoe on the other foot and cry out against an obvious value judgment. STANLEY DAVID GEDZELMA""1 Department of Earth and Plane-tare Scie-nces City College of New York Convent Avenue and I~\7(h Strcc-t ~<'w York.:-;Y 100:11 t·.SA. References I. S. D. Gedzclman, "( .loud (:IassifiGlIioll hd

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Additional Information

ISSN
1530-9282
Print ISSN
0024-094X
Pages
p. 104
Launched on MUSE
2017-01-04
Open Access
No
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