This paper analyzes the role, both at symbolic and concrete levels, played by Spain in the relationships between Cuba and the Soviet Union first, and Russia later. This transatlantic triangulation proposed by Antonio Carballo in his novel Adiós, camaradas (2007), has been possible not only because of the economic and political history but especially because of the cultural implications of such relations at different stages. In the displacement in which the plot occurs, from an utopian world to a dystopian one, the main character functions as the metaphor of a world that has ceased to exist, all utopias have disappeared, and the man is left alone to deal with the new realities. What possible readings, then, provides the relationship between the last Soviet cosmonaut, a Cuban author, and a book published in Spain, in regards to the new spaces of literary enunciation and post-Soviet Cuban identity after the end of the socialism in East Europe? The appropriation of the Soviet territory as a fictional setting informs about an ongoing process of change in the definition of the Cuban identity, for which the cultural references have already lost any attachment, and moves through many multiple imaginary with which it has been in contact in the decades after 1959.