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here. Discovering that a composer did not intend a representation counts decisively against it, though notice of intention may not be sufficientto make it a representation of whatever it is intended to represent. Representation is what Ryle called a ‘success’ concept; consequently, the composer might fail in producing it. We are left with the question as to the value of all these devices. What does it profit us to know that Bach engineered 10 entries in a choral prelude about the Commandments? In some works, like Debussy’s La mer, the programme merely distracts;viewed symphonically,the work is much stronger. In Lieder or opera, we have genuinely mixed arts where the interplay between text, dramatic situation and music is a precondition of understanding . Programme music does not seem to be a ‘mixed’ art, and representation , as Kivy acknowledges, has only a minor role in music [5]. As a board member of the Music Notation Modernization Association (P.O. Box 241, Kirsville, MO 63501, U.S.A.), I enjoyed this book very muchmore than Kivy’s earlier essay-though the topic is of substantially less significance. It is unfailingly intelligent and imaginative and is, I must add, very well illustrated. I. 2. 3. 4. 5. REFERENCES Peter Kivy, The Corded Shell, (Lawrenceville, NJ: Princeton, 1980). This earlier work was reviewed by Henri Raynor in The Music Review (AugustNovember 1983) pp. 302-304. Adam Smith, Essays on Philosophical Subjects (London, 1795). Peter Kivy, “Platonism in Music: Another Kind of Defense”, AmericanPhilosophical Quarterly 24, No. 3, 245-252 (1987). Jacques Chailley, “De I’axiome d’Igor Stravinsky”, Journal de Psychologie Normale el Pathologique (OctoberDecember 1963) pp. 407-419. Maria R. Maniates, “Sound Silence and Time: Towards a Fundamental Ontology of Music”, Current Musicology 39 (1985) pp. 59-64. PROCEEDINGSOFTHE9THANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE NATIONAL ATION, 1988,3 vols. NationalComputer Graphics Association, P.O. Box 3412, McLean, VA 22103, U.S.A., 1988. 699 pp., illus. Paper. COMPUTER GRAPHICS ASSOCIReviewed by Roger F. Malina, P.O. Box 75, 1442A Walnut, Berkeley, CA 94709, U.S.A. These three volumes contain the proceedings of the annual meeting of the National Computer GraphicsAssociation (U.S.A.). The N.C.G.A. has an active Arts section,which is planning to increase the involvement of the N.C.G.A. in the fine art aspects of computer graphics. A number of articles in these proceedings will interest Leonard0 readers. These include those on sessions on applications of artificial intelligence to computer graphics, robotics and computer-aided design, as well as sessions on computer art, animation and video technology. Authors include Paul Brown (formerly of Middlesex Polytechnic), Robin King, Barbara Nessim, Duane Palyka, John Pearson, Aaron Marcus, Chris Bailey and Bill Kroyer, John Chadwick, James Hennessey, and Philine Bracht. Two authors are of particular interest. Robin King of Sheridan College presents a useful introduction to computers in the visual arts with a good selected bibliography and list of resources. In a theoretical article entitled “Aesthetic Experiences,Personal Constructs and the Evolution of Computers in Art”, King applies the Repertory Grid Technique in the analysis of the work of computer artists. Aesthetic experiences are divided into the categories “Impositional” (characterised by persistent flow of information from artifact to viewer), “Influential” (characterised by a greater degree of reciprocity between artifact and viewer) and “Co-Creational” (where the aesthetic experience is a product of both artifact and viewer). Computer art is arbitrarily divided into “Mimetic”, “Derivative”, “Innovative” and “Emergent ” work, where emergent computer art is the only work in which the unique properties of the medium are essential to the work. Finally, the construct patterns of artists themselves are assigned “Art Student”, “Beginning Artist”, “Established Artist” and “Well-Known Artist” characteristics. King argues that most computer art to date falls in the mimetic and derivative phases and that as yet no co-creational emergent art has been carried out by artists with the construct patterns and risk taking of well-known artists. The analysis technique offers an objective way of analysing a new art form that is stilljudged of little interest by most of the art establishment. King quotes Tom Linehan as saying, “The burden of proof traditionally falls on an...


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