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Computational Musicology in Italy by Lelio Camilleri I. INTRODUCTION Computer-assisted research in musicology in Italy is still in the developmental stage, although several centers have been established to conduct permanent research activity in this field. Several research centers work on computer music and an Italian Association for Computer Music (Associazione Italiana di Informatica Musicale, or AIMI) has been founded, but their activities are mainly focused on composition, sound synthesis and the development of hardware and software, rather than on musicology, music theory or analysis research. In 1987an increasing interest in the use of the computer for musicological purposes became apparent. A two-day seminar, sponsored by the Istituto di Studi Rinascimentali of the University of Ferrara, was held in March to discuss the use of computers to create databasesor information-retrieval systems for musical studies. Another important internationalmeeting was held in Bologna, co-sponsored by the University of Bologna and the Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities and the Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities of Menlo Park, California (U.S.A.), during the International Musicological Society Conference . The two main subjects discussed by participants at this meeting were musical data and music analysis [I]. The research activity on music theory and musicology in Italy can be divided into two general areas: research in music theory, analysis and the development of music analysis/theory software; and the realization of musical databases. It is impossible to outline the Italian activity in computational musicology without making some general considerations of the use of computers in musicological research. The main branches of theory and analysis research are concerned with the implementation of theory rules in the study of well-defined repertoires, the use of theory-based analysis programs, and principles of cognitive modeling. These three paths are often interrelated, and the ~~ Lelia Camilleri, Conservatorio di Musica L. Cherubini. Divisione Musicologica del CNUCE/ C.N.R.. Piazza delle Belle Art! 2. 50122 Firenze, Italy. Received 5 May 1988 lines of demarcation between them are sometimes fuzzy. In the study of repertoires through theory rules, the model used is often generative, though 1 think a better definition is derivational,in the sense that through hypotheses and assertions about the stylistic repertoire a grammar is implemented that should be able to generate music related to the style under investigation. The theory-based approach aims, on the contrary,to realize a tool for analyzing music by a well-defined strategy. Theorybased approaches can differ greatly (for example, compare set theory [2] with Lerdahl and Jackendoff s generative theory [3]). But the purpose of using this kind of methodology can be twofold: to build up a computer program or a tool for scrutinizing pieces of music by the theory chosen, and to scrutinize the theory itself by testing its plausibility.John Rothgeb’s pioneering contribution on the computational realization of unfigured bass starting from theories is a good example of this facet. The theory-based model is in some way linked to the third branch, cognitive modeling. Since many recent theories are built in part on research in psychology, that is, on the perceptual and cognitive processes underlying the listening to and comprehension of music, the relationship between theory-based approaches and cognitive modeling is, in some cases, quite close. Cognitive modeling of music understanding integrates music theory with well-defined cognitive computational theory assertions. Production system architecture, modularity, schemata and other methodologies can be found. Italian computational musicology is particularly receptive to new developments in music theory and music cognition, and it has made some important contributions in the field of musical grammars and the use of the computer in music analysis. 11. RESEARCH IN MUSIC THEORY AND ANALYSIS Italian research in music theory and analysis includes both research using the computer as a tool for testing musical theory or hypotheses (these works are based mainly on the notion of musical grammar) and research focused on the realization of music analysis software and its use in musicological work. The works of M. Baroni et al. [4] and of the present author [5] can be considered to fall into the first category. The research work of the group of M. Baroni and C...


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