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more distant objects will not be. Several of Vermeer’s paintings indeed have close objects painted blurred, or, for small objects and glints, surrounded by a halo or ‘circle of confusion’, thereby reproducing the depth of field limitations inherent in a camera obscura, but not the human eye. The basic optics relevant to the period is straightforward and Wheelock is generally a good guide. But in onecrucial passage, he has a misunderstanding which leads him to an important error. Wheelock claimsthat circlesof confusion will not form if the object is not illuminated by a fairly intense light, and concludes from this that many of the circles of confusion evident in Vermeer’s paintings are not literal transcriptions of a camera obscura image. Actually, the circles of confusion are independent of the overall illumination. Wheelock’s own experiments in this regard employed subjects having low contrast and fine texture, for which the blur spots are superimposed and hence less visible. Thus the evidence for Vermeer’s use of the camera obscura is not diminished. In general, though, the book is well written, cogently argued and illustrated profusely with small black-and-white study photographs (including some of Wheelock’s own experiments), and it is a good source of references.Most satisfying are the passages that relate the theories and experiments to the paintings themselves ;with the concepts pointed out and understood, viewers are led to a deeper and more subtle perception of those paintings. ReadersofLeonard0 interested in the relationship between science and thearts-especially optics and paintingwill profit from the book. COLOR FOR THE HAND PAPERMAKER by Elaine Koretsky. Carriage House Press, Brookline, MA, U.S.A., 1983. 2 vols., 172pp. Trade, $35.00;Special Ed., $200.00. Reviewed by Joy Turner Luke, Studio 231, Box 18, Route 1, Sperryville, VA 22740, U S A . This is a unique book for artists who make, or want to make, paper for their own artworks. It contains information essential to the permanence of their work and information to help them create and control color in handmade paper. The author has struck a balance between preserving the old papermaking skillsand furnishing fresh technical information about pigments and dyes. In thepast 10or 15years there has been a revival of interest in artworks on paper. These two volumes represent a remarkable achievementinresearch, testing and then presenting the resulting information in an attractive format. Both editions include instructions for making all the papers and colors mentioned as well as the results of lightfastness and acidity tests on thepapers. The difference between the two editions is that the special edition includes actual samples of all the papers for which formulas are given. The special edition also comes boxed in an attractive handmade, fabriccovered box. The first volume in both editions contains detailed discussions about pigments and dyesplus procedures for papermaking. There are notes in the margin to aid in quick reference. It includesAppendicescontaininga glossary of terms, notes, a bibliography, a list of suppliers and an index. The second volume, Part 2, of the regular edition contains a Fade-Ometer test mask, a set of Blue Wool standards to serve as controls in lightfastness tests and samples of uncolored papers. The rest of the volume is given over to formulas and instructions for making 86 colored papers. This includes papers colored with pigments and with dyes,both natural and synthetic. Elaine Koretsky began studying papermaking in 1974 and has formed a partnership with her daughter Donna to seek out information and to experiment with all aspects of the art. Their Carriage House Studio is a center for study, teaching, experimentation and collaborative studies on fine papers. Koretsky has sought and received excellent technical advice from the pigment and dye industries and from well-known color experts, so that this information is much more extensive and current than that which is usually found in books for artists. Sheand Donna also have traveled throughout Asia seeking out ancient methods and materials. The book contains a wonderful mixture of traditional and recent knowledge and is a real service to its field. THE ARTS AT BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE by Mary Emma Harris. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, U.S.A., 1987. 314 pp., illus...


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