Abstract

After the Black Death in 1348, land values collapsed; the celibate monk became an object of ridicule while the ‘productive and reproductive’ third estate rose to power. The Catholic Church attempted to re-establish its authority at the Council of Trent (1545–1563) by rallying behind the theology of Saint Thomas Aquinas, but Humanist scientists and artists like Copernicus, Galileo, Raphael and Titian undermined the authority of Saint Thomas by creating a new vision of a united heaven and earth—a vision that still inspires Western civilization.

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Additional Information

ISSN
1530-9282
Print ISSN
0024-094X
Pages
pp. 195-199
Launched on MUSE
2017-01-04
Open Access
No
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