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376 Books small-scale designer that do not weigh on anyone who works with a larger canvas. The kind of process used in printing stamps is of crucial importance. A mistake of a few hundredths of an inch in registering one colour on another, which would never show up in a larger design, can ruin the appearance of a stamp completely. There are so many processes available for stamp production that just to choose between them poses a major problem. Will the end result be best achieved by photography, engraving, painting, cut film or sprayed tone? However, the problems of designing a stamp fade before those of designing a bank note. This must not merely be appealing, and legible, it must incorporate many multi-colour and multi-process methods aimed at defeating the forger. Many of the examples that the author uses to explain his views on the basic principles of miniature design may well be unfamiliar to his readers, such as Dalton’s Atomic symbols, harmonograph designs and Tarot cards. The principles themselves sound more familiar : concentrate on significant details rather than try to show everything, balance the components and the whole, be simple rather than fussy. Ceramic Sculpture: Methods and Processes. John B. Kenny. Chilton Books, Philadelphia, 1953. 8th printing, 1971. 304 pp., illus. $9.95. Reviewed by: P. S. Robertson* Whether ceramists should venture into the realm of sculpture has always been a highly controversial matter. Personally, I agree with Kenny, who devotes a whole book to this subject. It is an important contribution to the literature on pottery and a welcome change from other publications dealing almost entirely with functional ceramics. Excellent photographs and sketches make it possible to follow step by step the magic of making ceramic sculpture by coiling, modelling, slabbuilding and throwing techniques. He advises on the preparation and texture of clay and how to cope with the hazards of drying a piece. He describes a range of armatures and, although he prefers the use of hands to tools in the process of modelling, he lists equipment that is indispensable to the ceramic sculptor. An interesting departure from traditional sketching on paper is sketching directly on clay. Sculptor Frank Eliscu carries out this technique with impressive dexterity. Artists whose mode of expression is ‘realistic’ are advised to acquire a knowledge of anatomy. Some human and animal sketches are illustrated. The technique of portraiture is explained at length. Photographs and drawings are once more a very useful addition to the text. In order for a ceramic sculptor to make reproductions of his work, he must become acquainted 2 . Donnachaidli, I52 rue de la Mairic, 67-lltelhein1,France. with the use of plaster of Paris and mold-making. Chapter VI explains the various techniques involved in this process. Ceramic sculpture would be dull without the use of coloured clays, glazes, pigments, stains and oxides. Recipes are given of engobes and glazes, as well as advice on how to mix them and to apply them and how to avoid flaws revealed after firing. No ceramic sculpture would be complete unless it was fired, so that a kiln is indispensable. Various types of kiln are described, as well as the firing process and materials used. To those adventurous enough, the author gives detailed instructions on how to build a kiln. My own views on ceramic sculpture favour the methods of ‘coiling’ and ‘throwing’, which are the prerogative of the ceramist. Both these techniques produce hollow sculpture without the need of an armature or materials other than clay. The halving of cylinders thrown on the wheel and their transference on to clay is a technique that can be used to produce mural sculpture. One final word of praise is due to the varied range of plates chosen bytheauthor,whichreveals a broadmindedapproach to thedifferent media ofexpression used by the ceramic sculptor. The Arts on Campus: The Necessity for Change. Margaret Mahoney, ed. New York Graphic Society, Greenwich, Conn., 1970. I43 pp., illus. 56.50. Reviewed by: Peter Lipman-Wulf* This inquiry into the actual state of art teaching in American higher education is a collection of seven essays written by six educators and one student. The different contributions are...


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