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Social cognitive factors, such as knowledge of risk, perceived efficacies, and perceptions of risk and barriers, on condom attitudes and usage were assessed for sample of 424 female African American undergraduates at a large urban university. This study finds about 47% used a condom at last sex. Condom users held more favorable attitudes towards condoms and had fewer sex partners. Females who perceived stronger barriers in using a condom and those currently having sex partners had more negative attitudes about condom usage. Self-efficacy in communication and positive attitudes about condom usage significantly increase condom usage. Our findings raise serious concerns about potential hiv outbreaks on college campuses.