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586 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW Canada(a.k.a.BritishNorth America)their populistdiscontent wasall too easily labelled pro-American anddisloyal, andanyway theynever quite got theiracttogethernationally in considerable part because of English-French tensions. Ineffect, Laxer argues that Canadian political economy, leftleaning though itis,has been tooelitist oriented, totheneglect ofproper allowance forpopular democratic forces. Ironically, when allowance ismade forthem,particularly agrarian forces, theyturnouttohave hindered ratherthanhelped industrialization .And whilehehaslittleto sayhimselfabouttheworkingclass andits unions,presumably one couldadd international unionismto the listof impediments frombelow. Aswell,Laxerinsists thatCanada's failuretocutthe umbilical cordwithBritainmilitated against thedevelopment ofanindependentarmaments industry withlinkages intoengineering andmachine production .Thisispotent stuff,about howcolonial-mindedness becomes, intentionallyor otherwise, pervasive, andthesuperior alternative, of independent industrialization, suppressed. The problemwasnot too much economic nationalism, asorthodox scholarship alleges, but toolittle. Bothmethodologically andsubstantially, Laxerbreaks newgroundin this book,intowhichotherswillsurelynowdelve.I am notin doubtthathehas madeanimportantcontribution to Canadian politicaleconomy. I suspect he hasdonelikewise for Canadian history. M•.•. WA•rK•NS University ofToronto Alexander Cameron Rutherford: AGentleman ofStrathcona. D.R. BABCOCK. Calgar),: University of Calgary Press andtheFriends of RutherfordHouse•989. Pp. xvi,•94.illus.$•9.95cloth, $•4.95 paper Oneof themorepleasant architectural featuresof theUniversity of Alberta campus isRutherford House, formerresidence oftheprovince's firstpremier andthefounder andlong-time chancellor oftheuniversity. Thebuilding now serves asamuseum andasitefor special events. It also attracts manyvisitors. D.R. Babcock,a freelance historical researcher who hasoften contracted with Alberta Culture's Historic Sites Services, wrotethisbooktosatisfy aparticular needin connection withthebuilding's currentuse:'theinterpretive staffat Rutherford House required areference bookthatwould helpthemtoanswer themanyquestions posed byvisitors abouttheRutherfords, theirhomeand theirtimes.' Forthispurpose, thebookisreadilyserviceable. It isareadable narrativeof the major eventsin Rutherford'slife and containsenough anecdotal material to satisfy curious visitors. Indeed,thelongest chapter is devoted toa history of thehouse itself. Thebook, therefore, was never intended fortheprofessional historians who readthis journaland,notsurprisingly, itoffers themlittle.Although Babcock avoids the unrestrained adulation that so often characterizes the literature REVIEWS 587 associated withhistoric homes - heargues, forexample, thatRutherford was politically naive andoutofhis element aspremier oftheprovince - hehas relatively little to say,and nothingnew,aboutthe tumultuous eventsin Rutherford's political world.Thecontentious Autonomy Billthatcreated the province, theshiftfromthenon-partisanship of territorial politics tothe traditional partysystem, theestablishment of theadministrative machinery thataccompanied the foundingof the newprovince, thecontroversy surrounding theselection of Edmonton asprovincial capital, theplacing of the University of Albertain Rutherford's ownconstituency of Strathcona, andthe creation of AlbertaGovernment Telephones arealldulyreviewed, butonly briefly andunanalytically. Babcock does, however, devote anentire chapter to the AlbertaandGreatWaterways Railway scandal thatdestroyed Rutherford's career.He reiteratesthe findingsof the royal commission that absolved Rutherford of wrongdoing, andconcludes thathe wasguiltyonlyof poor judgment andmismanagement - aconclusion thatlargely repeats what L.G. Thomas saidoverthirtyyearsagoin the TheLiberal PartyinAlberta. (Fornew light on thisold topic,interested readers should lookfor a forthcoming University of Albertathesis byJayHeard.) Asfor a generalinterpretation, Babcock arguesthat Rutherfordwasa typical member of the Ontariosettler elite.Privileged andprosperous, he plunged intodozens ofcommunity activities andinstitutions, seeking toinstil inthewest thetraditions andvalues ofhisownBritish-Ontario upbringing. l•ut Babcock does notenergetically pursue thisoranyotherthesis. Restricted byhis primary purpose, healso faced alackofsources; theRutherford Papers are surprisingly sparse andtheauthorwasforcedtorelyheavily onnewspapers and interviews withRutherford's daughter.Evenso,some important secondarysources are ignored in the references. Historians seeking a more interpretative approach toRutherford andhisadministration areadvised to readBabcock's •98• article(Prairie Forum, 6, •) in whichhe argues that Rutherford's political experiences transformed himfromastrong centralist into analienated regionalist. Leave thebook tothetourists. •,^tst. voIs•.¾ University ofAlberta Agnes Macphail: Reformer. r•oRis PENNINGTON. Toronto: Simon &Pierre•989. Pp.26•, illus.$24.95 Elected to theHouseof Commons in •92•, Agnes Campbell Macphail was Canada's first womanMP.Her fascinating careeris the subject of Doris Pennington's newwork.Relying on Macphail's speeches in theHouse of Commons, herweekly constituency letters, andnewspaper accounts, Penningtonhascompiled a bookbased largely onquotations. FromPennington's selection itisevident Macphail was anarticulate andwitty agrarian spokesperson whodidnothesitate tochampion unpopular causes, among thempenal ...

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