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422 The Canadian Historical Review whom were communists or even radicals) were instrumental in the late 1930s in getting the Trade Union Act passed and in organizing the Sydney steelworkers. Thus, this picture is slightly out of focus, especially when the author points out that through much of the period the overwhelming majority of the students were from the diocese, and in 1950 over 70 per cent ofthat group were from working-class industrial Cape Breton. The picture becomes a bit clearer when one understands that Dosco president H.J. Kelly, known in local lore for his dismissive response - 'No smoke, no bologna' - to a delegation of immigrant women seeking some solution from the constant pollution, became diocesan chairman of the university's fund-raising campaign in the mid194os . The Eaton Foundation was the sole patron for this work, which helps explain the curious conclusion to the acknowledgment: 'St Francis Xavier University is proud to be associated with the Eaton Family. Together, we have helped to build Canada.' Neither the retail empire nor the faculty at St FX is unionized. For the People may be inappropriately titled, but it is an excellent beginning for anyone who would like to do additional work on this influential institution. DON MACGILLIVRAY University College of Cape Breton Forecasts for Flying: Meteorology in Canada, 1918-1939. MORLEY THOMAS. Toronto: ECW Press 1996. Pp. 200, illus. $14.95 This is the second volume of Morley Thomas's historical study of the Canadian Meteorological Service. The first volume, The Beginnings of Canadian Meteorology, appeared in 1991 and covered the early developments of the service from its initial organization in the 1870s. That book took the story to 1914, part way through the tenure of Sir Frederic Stupart. The present volume covers the interwar years, into the directorship of John Patterson. The author hints at a third volume - and perhaps more - on the way. It is astonishing that historians have taken so little note of a scientific service so old and so important as the Meteorological Service ~ now the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada but then, not even the Geological Survey of Canada has received the attention it deserves. Thomas is not a professional historian, but a former head of the service himself. His full access to the archives, as well as his intimate knowledge of both the organization and the science, allow him to provide a solid account of the service's activities and personalities. Book Reviews 423 As the title implies, the core of the book is devoted to meteorology in the service of Canadian aviation. Thomas's argument seems to be that without pressure to provide complete and timely meteorological information to flyers, the Meterological Service might have become increasingly irrelevant. Certainly, the portrait he paints of Stupart suggests that he was more inflexible towards the end of his directorship . The service had other disabilities: it had no serious role in the Great War (unlike the office in Britain), it probably had too many staff with outdated ideas, and it received little support from Ottawa. Early aviators had quite different needs than the general public from meteorology. Flying at low altitudes, in small planes, with no radio beacons or radar, they required specific, short-term forecasts and information about winds aloft and visibility, along with cloud cover and ceiling. Twice-daily general prognostications from the Toronto office were insufficient. The impecunious service did not face this need squarely until the mid-192os, although it was already dabbling in 'niche meteorology' for forestry and agricultural interests. Advances in aviation-oriented meteorology took place in four stages. First, some experimental and small-scale work assisted the early growth of aviation relating to civilian commercial flying and the embryonic RCAF in the 1920s. Second, the impending imperial airship route stimulated the formation of Canada's first national aerodrome at StHubert in 1930, replete with a modern aviation forecasting centre. After the R-101 disaster, attention returned to aircraft and the planning of a Trans-Canada airway system for air mail in the early 1930s. This system required a series of stations, many staffed twenty-four hours daily, in many new airports. The Depression curtailed this phase, but...


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