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Book Reviews 387 taking capitalists. Egnal's view creates the awkward matter of trying to define the time of capitalism's emergence. Fourth, government's role is downplayed, at least since 1940. Without question, regional incomes in both the United States and Canada have converged because of personal and intergovernmental transfers. Also, many places in the South - and West, but not the Midwest have done better because of federal military spending, a point mentioned only in passing. Incomes in Maryland and Virginia have risen, as well-paid government workers (and lobbyists) took up residence in the suburbs beyond the District of Columbia, where incomes of the poor have fallen. Fifth, in Egnal's most recent period, the Northeast, notably Connecticut and New Jersey, improved less because of high technology than because of the residency of highly paid stockbrokers and other financiers whose share of the income pie has skyrocketed even more than that ofthe skilled workers who have created the information highway. Sixth, in his concluding note, Egnal advocates more 'quality education ' as the key to regional economic growth through the information highway. Unfortunately, this advice has become the tired nostrum of the 1990s. The successful entrepreneurs past and present he discusses were dropouts. Seventh, in the preface, Egnal asserts that Japan has been a success story without an abundance of resources. It succeeded because of 'traditions that foster cooperation, loyalty, and hard work.' Cooperation and loyalty were hardly the virtues he found as the basis of economic development in the North after 1750, where the opposite - individualistic entrepreneurialism - has been the key. This richly documented and very interesting book deserves a great deal of attention and should be a focus of critical debate. JAMES LEMON University of Toronto Ni avec eux ni sans eux: Le Que'bec et les Etats-Unis. YVAN LAMONDE. Quebec: Nuit Blanche Editeur 1996. Pp. 128. $20.95 Yankee go Home? Canadians and Anti-Americanism. J.L. GRANATSTEIN. Toronto: HarperCollins 1996. Pp. 320, $28.oo A few days after the World Trade Organization in a preliminary ruling found Canada's excise tax on revenues from so-called split-run magazines to be in violation of international trade law, the Toronto Globe and Mail quoted an unidentified Canadian trade official: 'The u.s. 388 The Canadian Historical Review negotiators' attitude is just classic nineteenth century white man's burden - they've got to bring us their ways and their language. They'll only be happy when we have drive-by shootings or something.' That statement underlines how strong - and perhaps irrational sentiment in Canada has been historically on the crossborder relationship . The statement also reveals what Jack Granatstein observes, that Canadian anti-Americanism is usually benign. The two volumes reviewed here provide us with in-depth analyses of the historical evolution ofthose perspectives, not all ofwhich have, in fact, been antiAmerican in nature. These are very different studies, united only by a common interest in relations between Canada/Canadians and the United States, as well as by a desire by both authors to provide personal reflection on their own experiences. Indeed, Lamonde's study ends with a brief autobiographical chapter, and Granatstein's is replete with personal asides. Yet they remain very different in scope and orientation. Lamonde provides a brief overview of the largely political and intellectual impact of the presence of the United States on Quebec thought since the late eighteenth century. He draws on the extant secondary literature covering such aspects as the views of American republicanism by Louis-Joseph Papineau in the 1830s through the resurgence of French-Canadian nationalism with L'Action franc_;aise and Lionel Groulx in the 1920s and Andre Laurendeau in the 1940s. As with Granatstein's volume, Lamonde is concerned with elite thought, although he does note that the majority of the French-Canadian population saw its future in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in more practical terms than the elites; the former expressed their views by migrating to American mill towns in the Northeast. For intellectual and political elites, as the title of the volume suggests, there was ambivalence in French-Canadian thought, a tension between liberals, who were drawn to the American political example...


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