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338 The Canadian Historical Review intriguing judgments, with emphasis on the contribution of the Canadian Iroquois. More frequently, Macleod discusses the entire 'Seven Nations' together, combining the four Iroquois communities with the St Lawrence valley settlements of Abenaki, Algonquin, Nipissing , and Huron. Although this vagueness is sometimes a consequence of his sources, Macleod could have been more specific. For example, an estimate of the populations of each community, even ifderived only from the largest number of warriors counted at any time during the conflict, would be useful. The author uses the surviving documents on diplomatic relations among these communities, but scholarship on the Abenaki could have been exploited more fully. Perhaps MacLeod's future work will explain the people and protocols of the ritualized negotiations among the four Iroquois settlements and the intertribal communities. Where were the council fires? Who spoke for whom? To what extent did Six Nations' conventions apply? Did the Canadian governors treat the Seven Nations as a united group? Were the Abenaki , like the Ohio valley Amerindians, pushed into an anglicized 'Iroquois empire' after I759? Until he provides greater detail, MacLeod 's claims about Canadian Iroquois unity, independence, and autonomy in this period must be regarded as tentative. Non-specialists familiar with the general context will be interested in MacLeod's last chapter, on how the Amerindians of the St Lawrence valley avoided defeat in I76o and came to support the British during 'Pontiac's War.' British interests, Six Nations' influence, and Seven Nations' diplomatic skills all contributed to the Treaty of Kanawake of September I76o. Macleod is too brief here, but his endnotes will introduce the curious to the primary sources from which a fuller analysis can be constructed. This readable and thought-provoking supplement to existing literature prompts further inquiry. It immediately invites more detailed work from this perspective to test claims carefully, to place the Canadian Iroquois in context, and to engage existing interpretations of Amerindian , Canadian, and military history more directly and fully. IAN K. STEELE [Jniversity of Western Ontario You Are Asked to Witness: The St6:li5 in Canada's Pacific Coast History. KEITH THOR CARLSON. Chilliwack: St6:lo Heritage Trust I997· Pp. vi, 2Io, illus. $26.95 There is an interesting story about You Are Asked to Witness that merits telling. The message is that First Nations of Canada have now assumed Book Reviews 339 an active role in the production of scholarly knowledge and interpretation , and readers are being called, as in the title, to bear witness to this fact and to affirm it to others. This outcome conforms with St6:lo ceremonial procedure. The St6:lo Nation of the lower Fraser River valley in British Columbia is composed of some twenty bands and 5000 members. Two competing tribal councils provided political and social services to member bands until they merged in 1994. Now united as one, the St6:lo Nation is in an astonishingly vigorous phase of growth. With headquarters on the site of a former residential school and Indian hospital, the nation now employs around two hundred people and provides an expanding range of educational, health, and social services. The St6:lo face the task of preparing for treaty negotiations with the federal government and the province. Consequently, the Aboriginal Rights and Title branch of the St6:lo government and its predecessors has carried out basic ground-breaking research, often engaging .the help of University of British Columbia academics and graduate students, among others. This volume is a product of their work. Although aimed at high school curricula, the book includes articles by young scholars and St6:lo intellectuals who form what is sometimes called 'St6:lo University.' First Nations of Canada are frequently said to be engaged in reclaiming their own story, a task usually done through courtroom representations, publication of volumes of transcribed oral material, coffee table picture books, or simplified curriculum material. The leadership of the St6:lo Nation, however, is not interested merely in reclaiming history but; rather, in re-engaging in dialogue with the mainstream community. To this end, the nation staged an interdisciplinary conference in May 1997, inviting three hundred academics, community intellectuals, elders, and others. The nation also has two...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1710-1093
Print ISSN
0008-3755
Pages
pp. 338-340
Launched on MUSE
2016-04-06
Open Access
No
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