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334 The Canadian Historical Review liness,' for a copy said to be a 'stolid and slightly older' woman, with 'broader facial features' and a 'penetrating and reproachful look.' The latter she identifies as Shanawdithit, who has supposedly 'internalized the tragedy of her tribe' (505). Not only is Marshall's argument unconvincing but her choice of language is telling. Without getting into the thorny problem of exactly what one reads into any portrait (for which an art-historical literature exists), is there nothing more to the history of the Beothuk than reproach and tragedy? The history of the Beothuk is undeniably tragic. Through violence and consumptive diseases, these people disappeared within a short time span. The human loss was the greatest calamity, but the loss of knowledge of Beothuk language and culture is also distressing. From the sixteenth century on, the odds were against a people whose abhorrence of guns signalled their doom when they were pitted against armed Europeans who became superior in number, competed ruthlessly for salmon and other resources, and refused to countenance others unless they played by European rules. It is a sorry tale, but it need not be dull. Where are the Beothuk who ochred their bodies and became prototypical Red Indians, who took angularly decorated artifacts in angular, seagoing canoes, and who constructed massive fences to entrap migrating caribou? Where are the people who fought enemies tenaciously, including the Norse, whom they may well have driven off? Perhaps they celebrated afterward, as they did in later centuries, around decapitated heads of their defeated foe. These Beothuk were not just victims. Their full story awaits a different kind of historian, but, despite the reservations expressed above, History and Ethnography will be the necessary starting point for future efforts. SHEPARD KRECH III Brown University Les saints martyrs canadiens, vol. 5: Le martyre de la nation huronne et sa difaite avec Dollard des Ormeaux. GUY LAFLEcHE. Laval: Sin:gulier, 1995. Pp. 412. $40.00 Guy Lafleche's fifth volume in his major work, Les saints martyrs canadiens, appeared seven years after its first volume. In spite of the author's own statement that 'ce volume acheve mon travail d'edition' (349), the inside jacket announces a sixth volume, to be published in 2005. Le martyre de la nation huronne consists of seven chapters selected from three different volumes of the Jesuit relations: those of 1653-4 (signed by Franc;ois-Joseph Le Mercier and published in 1655), Book Reviews 335 1656-7 (Jean de Quen, 1658), and 1659-60 (Jerome Lalemant, 1661). A modern edition of these texts is already available in American historian Reuben Gold Thwaites's Jesuit Relations (vols. 41, 43, 45, 46), but not yet in Canadian Jesuit historian Lucien Campeau's Monumenta Novae Franciae. This is not a new edition from a diplomatic standpoint, but a 'regularisation editoriale' that blends the orthography of classical French with a modern graphic environment. The title of the book explains the reason behind the selection of texts. According to Lafleche, the real martyrs of the years 1650-60 were the Huron. After the removal of the few survivors to the vicinity of Quebec in 1650, the Huron were massacred in 1656 by an Iroquois war party, were forced to emigrate and disperse amongst the Iroquois (especially Mohawk and Onondaga) in 1657, and were eventually involved in the Long-Sault battle in 1660. In a pioneering essay in 1981, Canadian historian John A. Dickinson had shown the mythical nature of Adam Dollard des Ormeaux's last stand. Lafleche now maintains that forty Huron, along with seventeen Frenchmen and four Algonquin , were sacrificed in an utterly useless expedition motivated only by the Jesuits' selfish commercial interests. Technically, the book is poorly organized and cumbersome to use. The actual text is 51 pages and must be read alongside 277 small-print pages that include endnotes, an annotated list of textual variants, a glossary, and a chronology. There are several repetitions. Major interpretive issues are hidden by dozens of analyses of points of lesser significance which deflect the reader's attention and make it necessary to turn to the final chronology to place the events in a more logical sequence. More substantially...


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