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Fig. 4. Mukai Chie in performance at the Podewil concert hall in Berlin during the Megalopolis Aborigines tour, 20 October 1992. (Photo: Johannes Zappe) cide together what they wanted and needed, rather than merely participat­ ing as guests of organizations that often misunderstand the qualities of the art­ ists they solicit. Because of the energy demanded by such a project and the lack of interest on the part of large in­ stitutions in this domain of artistic cre­ ation, there have been only a few attempts to conduct this kind of tour in recent times. Proposals to do so have encountered severe financial problems. Conceptual questions are no less im­ portant than practical ones. In fact, these elements are intrinsically related. In art that uses different media in com­ bination, resolving the problem of cre­ ation and organization depends on the artist's ability to evaluate the balance between the media. A work that relates different artistic domains has to be con­ ceived on the basis of a cognition and comprehension of each domain: that is, a collaboration between them. Synaesthetics do not arise from an in­ nocent and irresponsible relationship between different fields of perception. The question of relations between the artists, their works and the environ­ ment is similar. In the case of perfor­ mance, a work takes place in a particular space in front of a particular audience and will have specific rela­ tions with them. The work will be con­ ceived according to these relations, unless it remains incoherent. The project of a festival should be conceived in the same way that a musical composi­ tion, a painting or any kind of (art)work is conceived. However, it must deal not only with the medium of sound, but also with the artists, their works, the technical staff, the architec­ ture of the concert hall, the audience, the weather, the economic and social situation, and so on. The reverse is also true: if we think of a composition as a social model, it has to function with the same (in)efficiency. These are the main ideas that gov­ erned the conception of the Megalopo­ lis Aborigines Tour. The European audience showed a great interest in the program we presented and some of the artists, such as Opera, have been in­ vited to other festivals as a conse­ quence. I hope that stich enthusiasm will have some influence on the "execu­ tive" personalities who patronize Japa­ nese contemporary art and will help bring recognition to this kind of activ­ ity. I also hope that these events can happen sooner in Europe and America, so that Western audiences can develop more precise ideas ofJapanese contem­ porary culture. References 1. Daniel Charles, "The Aesthetic of Non-Dualism," in Megalopolis Aborigines, exh. cat. (Tokyo: Galerie Surge, 1993) p. 32. 2. Charles [Up. 33. 3. Charles 11 ] p. 30. 4. Opera, untitled, in Megalopolis Aborigines [1] p. 40. 5. David Moss, untitled, in Megalopolis Aborigines [1] p. 10. 6. Takeda Kenichi, "Taishökoto ni yoru, söhököeeki pafomansu" (Double-Oriented Performances with the Taisho-koto), Nikutai (iengo (Body Language) 12 (1985) pp. 57-58. The History of Electronic and Computer Music in Japan: Significant Composers and Their Works Takehito Shimazu I have not yet met anyone who can speak of music without expressing his or her opinion about the positive re­ sults that can be gained through tech­ nology. Composers have adopted various aspects of scientific methods to further enhance their works. Computer music is a concrete and symbolic result of combining the fields of science and music. However, in the environment around us, an overwhelming number of musicians are not able to effectively and creatively utilize what has been gained through this research. Takehito Shimazu, c/o 3-3-2H Tonei i, Adachi-Ku, Tokyo, 121 Japan. E-mail: . People themselves are the main rea­ son for this failure. Scientists and engi­ neers have little interest in integrating the arts with science. Similarly, artists have little interest in adopting science into their art. But, even worse, no social system exists to bring artists and scien­ tists together, even if one party has great interest in the other. In particular...


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