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LMJ GLOSSARY This glossary is provided as a resourcefor those whomay beunfamiliar with some of theconcepts and terms presented in this issue. Definitionswere provided Uy Nick Didkovsky, Andrew Gerzso, BartonMcLean, Godfried-Willem Raesand Barry Truax. code resource-an executable program in the form of an Apple Computer 'resource'. There are many kinds ofApple resources: icons, pictures, windows, etc. comb filter-s-a signal-processing technique that adds a delayed version of the signal to itself. The delays-used are very short, much shorter than those occurring in reverberation ; hence the timbre of the sound is altered because certain frequencies are removed . Despite the effect of this technique as a filter, the result is often heard as an added pitch, such as that heard when ajet airplane flies overhead. common liSP-the dialogue of the language LISP (LISt Processing) (an industry standard). counter-in computer software, a variable that holds a sum which can be incremented or decremented to keep track ofa quantity of an event or of an occurrence of an event. demultiplexers-in the Light Console, the demultiplexer is a decoder that has three inputs and eight outputs. Each input represents a digit of a binary number that activates one of its output lines which corresponds to the address received on its input line (see McLean article). equaIization-a process that allows certain frequency ranges in a sound to be either emphasized or de-emphasized. event scheduler-the part of Hierarchical Music Specification Language (HMSL) that is responsible for scheduling the timing of musical and other software events. The generality of the scheduler affords the progmmmer the capability of scheduling not only musical events (notes, chords, glissandi , etc.) but functions as well (such as scheduling an event every 30 sec). gating-a signal-processing technique that allows a sound to be output identically to the input at certain moments and to be completely eliminated at others. In the extreme form of gating, often called 'chopping ', the sound alternates between 'on' and 'off' modes abruptly. Subtler forms of the process may produce sounds that resemble stuttering. grain-a quantum of sound, usually ofa duration of less than 50 millisecs. Sequences ofgrains will fuse perceptually, instead of being separately distinguishable. The shorter the grain, the larger the range of frequencies it contains. As a basis for creating sound, grains may be compared to pixels used to create digital images. granular synthesis-a technique for producing sound by generating high densities ofgrains per second. The densities can range from quite sparse to hundreds of thousands of grains per second. granulation-a technique whereby sampled sound is processed as a series of grains. These grains may be used to reproduce the sound more or less exactly or to transform it by adding textural or timbral variations. 'Variable rate' granulation allows the original sound to be time-shifted (i. e. stretched in time with no pitch change), whereas in 'continuous' granulation the sound is heard in its original temporal pattern but with added processing (see Truax article). Hierarchical Music Specification Language (HMSL)-HMSL is a music-composition and performance software that was developed by Phil Burk, Larry Polansky and David Rosenboom at the Center for Contemporary Music, Mills College, Oakland, California. HMSL was designed to be a nonstylistically-biased programming environment for experiments in music composition and performance. It is built upon the FORTH programming language OFORTH on the Commodore Amiga computer , HFORTH on the Macintosh computer ). HyperCard-an Apple Computer software product that enables users to create 'stacks' of 'cards' containing all sorts of information , ranging from text to sound. interpreter-an interpreter allows a user to interactively program in a computer language instead offollowing the 'write/compile /execute' paradigm found in most languages such as Pascal, FORTRAN or C. MIDI-Musical Instrument Digital Interface . "MIDI is an industry standard for the electronic exchange of musical information among a variety of computer-assisted musical devices, such as synthesizers, samplers , notation and sequencing software." (Definition from Burk and Polansky, HMSL Reference and User's Manual, Frog Peak Music, 1991). MIDItoolbox-software routines that handle transmission and reception of MIDI data from and to HMSL. The MIDI parser, for instance, is a collection of redefinable...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1531-4812
Print ISSN
0961-1215
Pages
pp. 127-128
Launched on MUSE
2016-07-06
Open Access
No
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