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(along with space) where Landy predicts an experimental future, it is never defined and its potential is not mapped out even in the most speculative sense. The reader's spontaneous understanding of the many facets of timbre cannot be assumed, and the equation of timbre with 'sound sources' (the only sense of definition we get) is too simplistic an approach. The intimate relationship between pitch and timbre is not mentioned. Consider also the term 'parameter ': "all sound or compositional components which can be isolated and ordered" (p. 9, quoted from Hausler, 1969). The idea of 'isolation' is difficult when it comes to composite parameters like form or timbre. And the idea of 'order' is equally uncomfortable . In how many works has the 'parameter' space been both isolated and ordered? This old serialist GOTTFRIED MICHAEL KOENIG: THE ELECTRONIC WORKS Acousmatrix 1/2. BV HAAST RECORDS , Amsterdam, the Netherlands , 1990. Double Compact disc 9001/2.50 DC plus 9 DC handling fee. Reviewed by Adolfo Nunez, Llli'M-CDMC, Santa Isabel52, 28012 Madrid, Spain. About 40 years ago the new availability of the tape recorder allowed the possibility of organizing sounds (music ) in ways never heard before. The two well-known pioneer studios, Cologne and Radio France, produced two kinds of tape music, that of electronically generated sound and that of acoustic sound recorded from the world. This two-disc CD set features the early electronic works of Koenig (born in 1926), one of the pioneers in the medium, who started working in 1954 at the Studio of Cologne. (Stockhausen, Eimert and Pousseur worked there at the same time). From 1964 to 1986 Koenig has been the artistic director of the Institute of Sonology at Utrecht University (the Netherlands ). Koenig is also a pioneer in computer music: since 1964 he has developed the computer-composing programs Project 1, Project 2 and, recently , Project 3. He has used these interpretation of 'parameter' is too narrow to be helpful. Although I welcome the airing of issues and agree with many of the attitudes , whether expressed from the composer's, performer's or listener's viewpoint, I am not convinced that at the book's end we are much nearer an understanding of the question mark behind the title. I would have appreciated fewer rhetorical questions and a more penetrating analysis of our postmodern musical condition . Landy does not assess the function of innovation in music, nor does he convince me (a composer-sympathiser ) of the inner necessity for a continuing experimental atmosphere . Our cultural climate is such that art music is not as privileged as it was, and the idea of progress, which lies behind innovation and experimentation , is under fire. But if we can assume that innovation is necessary, II. Recordings programs in his own instrumental and electronic music. Koenig has also written many articles and given radio talks, lectures and courses about electronic and computer music. All the pieces in the CD set are for tape only and follow the tendency of Cologne to use only electronically produced sounds. In fact, the first three pieces were produced in that studio. Klangfiguren II (1955-1956) is a demonstration of the possibilities of organizing and manipulating sound by abstract criteria, such as the duration of each section, time-direction (acceleration , deceleration, etc.), pitch-direction (rising, falling, etc.). In Essay (1957-1958) the composer tries to "strip electronic music of its instrumental character" by using sounds that are always "in a constant state of flux". In Terminus I (1962), Koenig uses more mechanical production processes than in his previous pieces. The remaining pieces were realized at the Studio of Sonology (Utrecht). The method for composition of Terminus II (1966-1967) follows a bottomup procedure: starting from a set of synthesized sound fragments and their different transformations, he puts these fragments and transformations into a time sequence at the service of an overall form. Output (1979) is one result of Koenig's PRIXM computer -composition program-controlling the VOSIM sound system, it is a why does Landy not prove its potential more conclusively? What room is there for innovation following the post-war explosion? Readers such as myselfwill find this book superficial. It demands a knowledge...


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