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this reason, it is an important addition to the libraries of students of the post-conciliar liturgical reform. John J. M. Foster School of Canon Law The Catholic University of America Washington, DC SPONSORSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES CONTEXT THEORY AND PRAXIS. Edited by Rosemary Smith, SC, Warren Brown, OMI and Nancy Reynolds, SP. Alexandria, VA: Canon Law Society of America, 2006. Nine canonists address a rather complex topic from various perspectives in this small text. Neither civil nor canon law recognizes sponsorship ; nevertheless, it is an important phenomenon particularly for religious engaged in apostolic activity in furthering the Church’s mission. Sponsorship can be understood as “a relationship between a Catholic organization and a legally formed entity for promoting and sustaining the Church’s mission.” While the authors limit their discussion to education and health care, sponsorship can apply to social services and other areas of the Church’s mission. The authors maintain that the experience of religious can serve as a model for future sponsorship in the Church; however , the scarcity of religious vocations necessitates the need to form and educate the laity to assume positions of leadership in present sponsored works. Burns, an experienced major superior, notes the importance of the spiritual impetus and needs of people that motivate a religious institute in its various service institutions. She recognizes the need for more creative , committed persons who understand the religious institute’s vision and the inevitable compromises inherent in all human endeavors. Morrisey informs that sponsorship implies: 1) use of one’s name; 2) exercise of certain governmental responsibility; and 3) accountability to Church authorities. Sponsors influence; they do not control. There exists a formal relationship between a recognized Catholic organization and a legally formed entity for the sake of promoting and sustaining the Church’s mission. book reviews 801 802 the jurist Beal approaches sponsorship as a way of proclaiming the Kingdom of God, particularly in the areas of education, health care, and social services . He reviews the many complexities in American society contributing to the gradual unraveling of the ‘seamless garment’ or golden age of sponsored institutions from the 1960s through 2005. The decreasing number of religious serving in corporate apostolates has led to a distancing of the religious character from the institutions, while the laity assume ‘jobs’ rather than ministries. Beal laments the sad fact that health care and formal education have become commodities, business enterprises subject to market forces. King offers the theological and canonical background for communio as the precursor of the juridic person, a canonical institute in the public order of the Church for service. To preserve communion, a juridic person designs structures for effective participation in the Church’s mission. King demonstrates how juridic personality provides stability and continuity with financial controls. Dugan, a civil and canon lawyer, explains civil corporation as dating back to the thirteenth century and organized to develop business and protect the individual. She reviews the ordering of corporate structures and the responsibility of the sponsor for: a statement of purpose, a board of directors, offices and their terms, processes for election, and other particulars . She stresses the importance of Catholic identity through adherence to doctrinal and moral principles of the Church. Golden focuses on sponsorship in Catholic higher education; he demonstrates how it offers the control necessary for canonical stewards to meet the obligations of their incorporated apostolates. The author reviews the pressures on Catholic higher education in the 1960s, regarding faculty, capital, and programs. Unions, salaries, faculty and student representation , and academic freedom—all contributed to adjustments in structures and policies. Three basic systems of corporate government emerged: the semi-independent corporation, and the independent corporation with a unicameral or bicameral structure. DiPietro, a civil and canon lawyer, recognizes sponsorship as the appropriate control necessary in the secular sphere for a religious institute to carry on its apostolate. She describes the legal relationship between the public juridic person and a non-profit incorporated health care facility. Smith addresses the role of sponsors and the importance of establishing good communication with those serving in their institutes. Sponsors nourish faith and provide vision and values for these workers. She stresses the need for religious institutes to...


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