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CANONISTS VERSUS CIVILIANS: THE BATTLE OF THE FACULTIES James A. Brundage* Formal, systematic teaching of the tough, technical kind of law that is essential to produce learned lawyers and judges was virtually non-existent in the early medieval West.1 Students of rhetoric, at least in some schools, read a few Roman law and canon law texts, to be sure, while the documents produced by the chanceries of popes, bishops, and kings show that the clerks who worked in them were often familiar with standard legal formulas, presumably adapted from older documents in their archives.2 Scholarly monks and clerics, too, produced substantial numbers of increasingly comprehensive collections of canon law throughout the period, which enabled bishops and other ecclesiastical authorities The Jurist 71 (2011) 316–333 316 * University of Kansas 1 Pierre Riché, Écoles et enseignement dans le haut moyen âge, fin du Ve siècle– milieu du XIe siècle, 3rd ed. (Paris: Picard, 1999) 260, as well as his Enseignement du droit en Gaule du VIe au XIe siècle (Ius Romanum Medii Ævi; hereafter IRMÆ), pt. 1, 5, b, bb; (Milan: A. Giuffrè, 1965) and “Les écoles en Italie avant les universités,” in Luoghi e metodi di insegnamento nell’Italia medioevale (secoli XII–XIV), ed. Luciano Gargan and Oronzo Limone (Università degli studi di Lecce, Dipartimento di scienze storiche e sociali, 2nd ser., Saggi e ricerche, vol. 3. Galatina: Congedo, 1989), 1–17; Ugo Gualazzini , L’insegnamento del diritto in Italia durante l’alto medioevo (IRMÆ, pt. 1, 5 b aa; Milan: A. Giuffrè, 1974); Giovanni Santini, “‘Legis doctores’e ‘sapientes civitatis’di età preirneriana: Ricerche preliminari (con speciale referimento al territorio della Romagna nel sec. XI),” Archivio giuridico Fil. Serafini, 7th ser., 38 (1965) 114–171; Helmut Coing, “Die juristische Fakultät und ihr Lehrprogramm,” in Handbuch der Quellen und Literatur der neueren europäischen Privatrechtsgeschichte, vol. 1: Mittelalter, ed. Helmut Coing (Munich: C. H. Beck, 1973) 39–128 at 39–43; Stephan Kuttner, “The Revival of Jurisprudence ,” in Renaissance and Renewal in the Twelfth Century, ed. Robert L. Benson and Giles Constable (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982) 299–323, repr. in his Studies in the History of Medieval Law (Aldershot: Variorum, 1990), no. III. 2 See most recently Alice Rio, The Formularies of Angers and Marculf: Two Merovingian Legal Handbooks (Translated Texts for Historians, vol. 46; Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2008), and Legal Practices and the Written Word in the Early Middle Ages: Frankish Formulae, c. 500–1000 (Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, 4th ser., vol. 1; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009). to readily find relevant canons, decrees, and decretals to guide their decisions.3 This situation began to change around or shortly after 1100. Evidence from manuscript glosses on legal texts produced in this period begins to show that the Roman civil law texts in Justinian’s Corpus iuris civilis, and to a lesser extent canon law, were slowly starting to be taught systematically in a few places in northern Italy and the south of France.4 By the middle of the twelfth century schools in which students studied both laws were flourishing in numerous cities, most notably at Bologna, and elsewhere in northern Italy and southern France, particularly at Montpellier , but also at Paris, Cologne, and Mainz, as well as in the AngloNorman realm.5 Frederick Barbarossa’s Authentica Habita, issued in 1155, testifies that students and teachers in the Bolognese law schools already formed distinctive social groups in the city and awarded them a series of valuable legal privileges.6 Three decades later Pope Lucius III supplemented this in his decretal Ex rescripto, which granted teachers canonists versus civilians: the battle of the faculties 317 3 Lotte Kéry, Canonical Collections of the Early Middle Ages (ca. 400–1140): A Bibliographical Guide to the Manuscripts and Literature (History of Medieval Canon Law, vol. 1; Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1999); Linda Fowler-Magerl, Clavis canonum: Selected Canon Law Collections before 1140 (Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Hilfsmittel, vol. 21; Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 2005); Detlev Jasper and Horst Furhmann, Papal Letters in the Early Middle Ages (History of Medieval Canon Law, vol. 2; Washington: Catholic University of America Press...

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Additional Information

ISSN
2326-6236
Print ISSN
0022-6858
Pages
pp. 316-333
Launched on MUSE
2016-07-06
Open Access
No
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