This article presents the results of recent research on the historical period of west-central Thailand between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. At this time Dvaravati was in a stage of decline while the prominent rivals of Pagan and Angkor began to prosper. The construction of stone sanctuaries in the Bayon style in west-central Thailand has caused serious debate regarding the influence of Jayavarman VII over that part of Thailand. However, the main point of the present study is that the successors of Dvaravati can be considered to have played a significant part in the socio-economy of that period. This research explores the landscape of the study region using remote sensing techniques as well as carrying out conventional methods of fieldwork. New discoveries and current evidence are discussed, along with some issues concerning the archaeology of the post-Dvaravati, pre-Sukhothai transitional period (c. a.d. 1100–1300). West-central Thailand is believed to have been an economically desirable land with rich resources throughout its history. It is hoped that this work will contribute to the understanding of the social changes after the Dvaravati period when the economic power shifted to other parts of Mainland Southeast Asia.