In 1993, President Felix Houphouet-Boigny died and the concept of Ivoirian was incorporated into the electoral code, exacerbating ethnic, political, and religious polarization and leading to years of political instability. In 2002, President Laurent Gbagbo faced a mutiny that developed into a full-blown uprising, pairing the Muslim-controlled north against the government-controlled Christians in the south. The civil war led to French intervention to separate the warring factions and start peace talks. Several accords were reached but not implemented. Thus, Gbagbo stayed in office after 2005. In 2010, he lost the presidential election but refused to cede power, reigniting the armed conflict and inviting French intervention, which culminated in his removal from office. President Alassane Ouattara faced enormous challenges managing a polarized and fractured country.


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