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104 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW chapters will be of particularinterest.One detailsSobey's rolein the recent round of grocerymergers.A secondgivesan insider'sviewof Industrial Estates Limited,a publiclyownedfirm whichsubsidized thecostof capitalto NovaScotia manufacturers duringthe 196osand 197os. Capitalwassocheap thatonefirminvested in anelephant for itsPictou County lumberyard. When theelephant caught pneumonia, theKindness ClubofHalifaxtriedunsuccessfullyto saveit byknittinggiantbooties. At the otherendof thetechnology spectrum, theGlace Bayheavy waterplantisamorefamiliarsymbol ofpublicly sponsored industrialization in NovaScotia. The biographypromptsquestions of wider import. How importantwas Sobey's financial acumen, asopposed tomarketing andmanagement skills, in theevolution ofhisself-service supermarket chainintheearlyautomobile era? Did Sobey's questtojoin the Boardof DominionSteelandCoalreflectsome non-pecuniary goalorwashetrulypersuaded byregional mythology thatthe firm wassoundapartfrom theevilinfluence of outsiders? Havepersonal and regionalloyalties influenced business success elsewhere asmuchasourauthor apparently believes theyhavein NovaScotia? Wasthebonusing byStanfield andSobey fundamentally differentormoresuccessful inthelongrunthanthe effortsof Tupper andFieldingeightyyearsearlier? K.INWOOX) StMary'sUniversity ThePolitics ofIndustrial Restructuring: Canadian Textiles. RIANNE MAHON. Toronto: University of TorontoPress 1984.Pp.xii, 204.$25.00cloth,$12.5opaper Thisstudyprovides a provocative analysis of howCanadian industrial policy hasbeenformulated.Utilizingthe concepts of capitalist class fractions and hegemonic classdomination,ProfessorMahon arguesthat the dominant staples fractionhasbeenable,throughthe state,to 'organize anunequalbut positive-sum relationship amongthefractions ofcapital andbetween themand the subordinate classes' (12). Owing to increasedtrade liberalizationafter WorldWar n, thehistoric compromise established between staples exporters andmanufacturers beganto disintegrate, and,to maintainitshegemony, the staples fractionwascompelled to arrangeanewaccord. According to Mahon, the sector of the Canadianeconomy to be threatenedfirstbythe spectreof trade-induced deindustrialization wasthetextileindustry,andsheprovides a fascinating account of why,how, and with whatresultsvariousoptionsfor restructuringthe textile industry were advanced.Through a policy of 'progressive liberalization,'enhancedby governmentfunding to promote modernization and rationalization, major textilemanufacturers havebeen converted to the doctrine of freer trade. Although Mahon criticizesR.T. Naylor for portrayingthe two major fractions of capitalastooantagonistic andfor ignoring'theactuallinksthat REVIEWS 105 developedbetweenthem' (8), her own analysistends to exaggeratethe dichotomy. Werethestaples-exporting andimport-substituting fragmentsas separate andcommitted toopposing objectives assheimplies? The capitalists whoorganized Dominion Textile,forexample, wereclosely identified withthe Bankof Montreal,the coalindustry,and pulp and papercompanies. More recently,as Mahon herself reveals,textile firms have made significant investments intheresource sector (• •8).A moredetailed analysis isrequiredof the interconnections and overlappingeconomicand politicalinterestsof resource-based andmanufacturing capitalprior to •97o.Byconcentrating on impersonal structures andneglecting corporate links,theauthorhassacrificed colour and nuance. The treatmentaccordedlabour'srelationshipto the capitalist fractionsis also puzzling. The textileunions areportrayed asgenerally supporting textile capital's definitionof and solutions to the problemsconfrontingthe textile industry, yetweareinformedthatthestate's fearoflabourmilitancy inducedit to frame a textilepolicywith improvedprovisions for labour.The author further contends thatit is'themilitancythat the rank and file membershave displayed' which isneeded to'transform thestructure ofrepresentation' (•49). How, then, wasthis militancymanifestedin the textile sector,and how significant wasit? Whiletheperiodcovered was oneofheightened crisis, Mahonunfortunately createsthe impressionthat the problemsof import competitionand modernization campaigns in the textileindustrybeganonlyafter •945 (64, ••5), whentheywereprimarycharacteristics for at leastthe four preceding decades. Overall,thisvolumemakesa significant contributionto the debateabout inter- and intraclass relations in Canada and the role of the state in the enunciation of industrialpolicy. GAIL CUTHBERT BRANDT Glendon College, York University Dominion of Debt:Centre, Periphery and theInternational Economic Order.R.T. N,•¾I•OR. Montreal:BlackRoseBooks•985. Pp. 2oo.$24.95cloth,$•4.95 paper Tom Naylor'ssecond published bookisa collection of previously published essays writtenoverthepastseven yearsor so.The unityof themeisthatof the interaction offinance, economic development, andpolitical powerinCanadian andworldhistory. Fiveessays dealwithCanadiandevelopment andthreewith theworldeconomy since WorldWarIX.It becomes clear,however, asonereads thesepieces, that the author isa severecriticof capitalism who hasnothing remotelycomplimentaryto say about economicdevelopmentunder that regime. ...


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