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506 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW farmerswhoemployed themwerenotnecessarily thegullstheregistered veterinariansmadethemouttobe ,andthatgovernments thatfailedtooutlaw themwerenot actingsolely frommotives of political opportunism. In sum,historians willbedisappointed thatthebookdoesnottakegreaterpainsto relatetheevolutionof theprofession todevelopments in thelargersociety. Yet only somuchcanbedone,evenin4o0pages. The factisthat,thanks tothisbookandF.E. Gattinger's workontheVeterinary College, wenowknowmoreabout theriseofthe veterinary profession inOntariothanwedoabout anyotherprofessional group.The bookisarealcontribution toCanadiansocial history. D.A. LAWR TheUniversity ofWestern Ontario Political Parties andIdeologies in Canada: Liberals, Conservatives, Nationalists. w. CHRISTIANandc . C.•MPB•.I•I•. Toronto,McGraw-Hill-Ryerson, 1973.Pp.x, 213.$7.95cloth, $4.75paper. Ideology, likereligion, neverceases tosparkthefiresofcontroversy; butinCanada it hasprovoked remarkably littleserious andscholarly analysis. Canadian social scientists ,like our politicians, havegenerallybeenreluctantto consider carefullythe natureandimportanceof ideology. A centuryagoJohnA. Macdonald setthe tone whenhe statedthatit wouldbewrong'towastethetimeof thelegislature andthe moneyof thepeoplein fruitless discussions onabstract andtheoretical questions of government';this approachhasbeen strengthenedby the success of brokerage politics in the twentiethcentury.For a periodtherewaseventalkof the 'end'of ideology, for thewordhaduncomfortable European overtones of theextremeleft andright.Thankfullytheblinkers havebegunto comeoff in thelastdecade and scholars havebegunto investigate the ideological concepts whichlie behindthe clich6s andtheactions of ourpolitical figures.Evenourconstitutional arrangements containprofoundideological assumptions. Thereforeit ismostwelcome toseetwo scholars with the courageto attempta comprehensive and analytical studyof the evolutionof Canadianideology. It isimportantto sayattheoutsetthatthisworkrejectsthe Marxistdefinitionof ideology.It is not an analysis of the classstrugglein Canadabut a systematic presentation of the principles and ideaswhichlie behindconservatism, liberalism, socialism, and nationalism within Canada.It is clearlywrittenwith a refreshing absence ofjargon.But for thehistorianit isnota totallysatisfactory effort for the historical perspective isoneof itsweaknesses. The authorshavenotventuredvery seriously into the periodicalliteraturein their researchandthereforemuchof the interesting workof SydWise,CarlBerger,Viv Nelles,andotherhistorians hasnot beenconsidered in mappingtheevolutionof politicalideas.The authorsdo,however ,properlypresentMorton,Creighton,andInnisasparticipants in theintellectualdebateof themid-twentieth century.The authorsseemtohaveadopteda thesis whichissomewhere between thepolesof KennethMcRae's neo-Hartzian liberalism REVIEWS 507 andGeorgeGrant'sTory lament.The volumeattempts withsomesuccess to show thatthereisadistinct anddefinable style andcontent toCanadian political ideas. In places thispioneering workfallsbetween thestools of beingahistory of parties andtheirplatforms andasystematic treatment ofideology. In theCanadian context, especially for ToriesandGrits,thereare morefundamental ideological divisions withineachpartythanbetween thetwohistoric parties.In places theideological termsof Conservative andLiberalconfuse ratherthanclarifythedebate.However,a moreserious problem liesintheuseofpolitical labels andthehistorical generalizationswhichflow from them. Two examplesof thisweakness are the following: 'Liberalpolitical andeconomic ideasenteredCanadawithWolfe'sarmyandwere secured by the Treaty of Paris'or 'The reciprocity campaign of •9• • wasthe last appearance ofsimple freetradeunderLiberalcolours.' To seeLaurier's campaign in •9• • as'simplefreetrade'requires considerable imagination in spiteof theCobden medalof •897. Separatingtherealpolicies from theelectoralrhetoricisessential for any work on ideology.As well,the sources quotedin somepartsseemcuriously restricted. For instance,the first thirteen sourcescited on liberalism are all from Lord Durham'sReport- asource whichmanyscholars mightquestion, especially if oneis concernedabout the contributionof French-Canadianreform thought. Also, it seemed to thisreviewerthatGoldwinSmithwasgivenunduecreditasthefatherof modernLiberalthought.'The linerunsunbrokenfromSmithtoLaurier,Kingand Trudeau.'ManywouldseeGoldwinSmithasabrilliantexponent of Britishlaissezfaireliberalism butwouldquestion theextentofhisimpact inCanada. In contrast to Smith's position, Mackenzie, Mowat, andBlake arelargely lostfromview. Mostofthe majorFrench-speaking figuresarealsolargelyignored.Asthisvolumepurportsto beananalysis oftheevolution ofideology, notjustastudy ofthecontemporary scene, then these criticisms are serious. Asthetimesequence approaches thepresent, theauthors handlethesubject with greatercertainty.Althoughthe work of manyotherssuchasHorowitzis clearly evident,the authorsare labouringin an area wherethere are huge gapsin the existing secondary materials. Evensotheymakeanumberof importantpoints. They state clearly thedangers ofapplying uncritically American orEuropean labels tothe Canadian scene. Goldwater conservatism is different from traditional Canadian toryism. Their chapteron nationalism isa sensible corrective to someof theemotionalexcesses in the periodical literature.Here theauthorsrightlyemphasize the differencesbetweenEuropean nationalismand the current phenomenonin English-speaking Canada. However, I dofeeltheworkisweakinitspresentation of therootsof socialism. The development of class consciousness ishandledin arather casual waywithgeneral comments such as'It was notanideology which was congenial toCanada'and'astyleof socialism moreindebtedtoMethodismthantoMarx.' Also, there are evidences of haste in the failure to catch some of the factual errors, such as theclaimthattheGrayReportwasneverofficially released butonlyleakedthrough the Canadian Forum. This book is an importantcontributionin one of the mostdifficult areasof historiography. Theworkisnotadefinitive orevenneardefinitive effort;butitisthe firstattempt atsynthesis inalargely virgin field.Unliketheearlier volume onpolitical 508 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW thoughtbyGlazebrook, it follows aserious analytical approach. Letushopethatthe weaknesses of thepresentvolumewillprovoketheauthorsandthecritics tofurther sorties intothewoodsnowthatapathhasbeenattempted.The further development of intellectual historyandpolitical thoughtasscholarly fieldsin Canadadesperately needs such work. ROBERT PAGE TrentUniversity TheHistory ofNewBrunswick Provincial Election Campaigns andPlatforms •866-• 974. c^I•VIN ^.WOODW^i•D. Toronto,MicroMediaLimited,•976. Pp.vi,89.$•4.95. A reviewerof thisbookmustdecidewhetherto appraiseit asthe authorhas conceived it, or ashemight,andperhapsshould,haveconceived it. Asit stands, the bookhasthree sections: a brief historical overviewof the campaigns, issues, and platformsof New Brunswickprovincialelections since1866; shortdescriptive...

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Additional Information

ISSN
1710-1093
Print ISSN
0008-3755
Pages
pp. 506-508
Launched on MUSE
2016-04-06
Open Access
No
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