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62 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW land,a groupthat,surprisingly, hadfewlinkswiththe merchant class. Wasthisa normal stage incolonial development ortheestablishing ofanenduring pattern? It is alsointeresting tohavetheviewconfirmed thatthecolonization of Canadawasnot characterized by'groupsettlement.' Theresulting rapidloss ofoldprovincial identities mayexplain theearlyemergence ofanew,Canadian provincial (certainly not national) identity. The present workwillbe valuedby teachers andstudents alikefor itspatient unravelling of thattangledskeinof chartered companies, monopoly provisions, explorers, andIndiantribesthatmarksthisearlyperiod.It isthemostbalanced treatment oftheperiodavailable, pruningdowntohumanstature such individuals as CartierandevenChamplain. It provides alucidaccount of thatpainfulprocess of colonial beginnings, markedby suchsmallgainsfor the expenditure of somuch sufferingandtreasure. DALE MIQUELON University ofSaskatchewan, Saskatoon LaPopulation duCanada enz663.MARCF. I•TRUDF. I•.FleurdeLys:fitudes historiques canadiennes. Montrfial,Fides,•973. PP.xl, 368,cartes.$•9.00. LeTerrierduSaint-Laurent en• 663. MAaCF. I•TaUDF. I•.Cahiersdu CentredeRecherche en Civilisation canadienne-franqaise, No 6. Ottawa, Editions de l'Universitfi d'Ottawa,•973. PP.xlvi,6•8, cartes. $9•.oo. A fewyears ago,toshow thatdocumentation ontheFrenchregime inCanada was abundant, MarcelTrudel wrotea shortpiecesuggesting research topics on New France forthenexthundredyears orso.Thesetwomonographs illustrate hispoint. According totheauthor, thebooks werenecessary preliminaries tohisstudy ofNew Franceunder the Compagnie desCentAssocids from •697 to •663. The first is an analysis of the3o35inhabitants of Canadain •663,whilethesecond isameticulous inventory of landholdings at thesamedate.Together,theyprovidean accurate delineation of thehumangeography of Canada ontheeveof theestablishment of royalgovernment. BothbooksreflectTrudel'scustomary scholarship. La Population duCanada is nothing less thanareconstituted census oftheCanadian population on3oJune•663, withaggregate figures ongeographical distribution, origins, age,sex, marital status, and- withless precision - tradeandsocial standing. The firsthalfof thebookis devotedto basicanalysis of the data and the restcontains the nominalcensus reconstitution, completewith appropriatecross-references. InasmuchasTrudel dares toassess hisdata, theconclusion which comes outofthispopulation study isone ofa'brassage extraordinaire depopulation (•54).'Amajority ofthepopulation (6•.3 per cent) wasmade up of immigrants,mostof whom came from the western provinces of France,andparticularly from Normandy, Aunis,and Perche. The overall population borethemarks ofrecent settlement: it wasyoung (•o.6years old on the average) and predominantly male:marriageable menoutnumbered marriageable women sixtoone.Among themarried couples, spouses usually came from differentregions of France.A largenumberof Canadians couldsigntheirnames, which Trudeluses asaroughguideofliteracy. Dataonoccupation werescarce, but REVIEWS 63 mostCanadians seemed to earntheirlivingfromthe soil,in spiteof theirrelative concentration in the towns.The colonywasnot overburdened with churchmen, administrators, or businessmen. In short,recentimmigrationmadefor population patternsdevoidof significant rigidities. The other book,Le TerrierduSaint-Laurent, recordsall land titlesin Canadaup to 3øJune 1663,the'census date'usedaswellfor thepopulation reconstitution. Here toothebreadthof scholarship isimpressive: theworkprovides adescription ofevery plotoflandinthecolony. Historians, genealogists, andgeographers willfindituseful as a reference book. One must remember, however, that land titles do not reveal actualuseof theland;still,theextentandthe patternof landgrants,aswellasthe frequencyof land transactions, canin the absence of moredirectdatagivesome indicationof landoccupation. In a recentarticleTrudel hasestimated that6o.5 per centofthecensitaires undertheCentAssocids hadabandoned, sold, orexchanged their land.Thismightbetakentomeanthattherewasmorelandspeculation thanactual occupation of thesoil.Moredefiniteconclusions mustawaitpublication of thethird volume of Trudel's Histoire de la Nouvelle-France. The readerunfamiliarwiththesources maywonderhowsuch reconstitutions asLe TerrierandLa Population couldevenbeattempted.The answerliesin thecomparativewealthof thearchives andin Trudel'sthoroughness. The authorhassystematicallygonethroughallpublicandprivatedocuments concerning theyears•6•7-63 and sometimes beyond:churchdocuments, includingvitalrecords, vestryaccount books,abjurationand confirmationrecords; judicial sources, includingnotaries' minutesandcourtrecords; administrative records, includingallofficialcorrespondence ,militiarolls,censuses, and seigneurial records;and privatepapers,mainly from religious orders.There wereof coursegapsin the documents, but Trudel is generally carefulnottogobeyond hisevidence. Surprisingly, thepainstaking workof linkingthedataandproducing aggregate figuresappears to havebeendonebyhand,withoutthehelpof a computer. The analysis ofpopulation datadoes notreach beyond thelevelofelementary crosstabulations .It mighthavebeeninteresting to subjectthe materialto more powerful statistical methodsand to comparedata with the resultsobtainedby historical demographers workingon colonialNew England.Still,the availablestatistics are presented clearly, withfrequenttables andfigures.Bothbooks alsocontainuseful maps;Le Terrierin particularhasrunning mapsinsertedthroughoutthe text. Indexesmakeit possible to correlatedatafrom Le Terrierand La Population. Together ,these twobooks providerichmaterialforthebeginnings of asystematic social studyof Canada in •663.Letushopeforit inthenextvolumeof Trudel'sHistoire de la Nouvelle-France. jos• E. IGARTUA TheUniversity ofWestern Ontario Marie del'Incarnation 0599-•672), • tomes.BOM<;uYOURY. Quebec,LesPresses de l'Universit•Laval;Sabl/•-sur-Sarthe, France, Abbaye Saint-Pierre deSolesmes, •973. Pp.x, 6o7.$•6.oo. Jecrois qu'ontientenmainunebiographie d•finitivedel'illustre religieuse. Cequi ...


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