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REVIEWS 87 Howard Doughty,W.R. Taylor, and H. Wish publishedbetween•958 and •96• beingexamples. This interestwasnotunrelatedto Wade'spublicationof thisbiography and of Parkman's journals (•946), for both amply reveal Parkman'svery personalstrugglewiththenineteenthcentury. How well,then,canthe presentworkservestudents of Parkmanthirty yearsafter itsfirstpublication? Scholars arenolongercontenttoseethesprings of actionwithin Parkmansimplyasthe conflictof Puritanand Patricianand of both againstsocial equality.They arelessaptto regardthe Parkmanof theOregonTrail voyage asa FrederickJackson Turner manqud. They are examiningmoredeeplythat terrible illnessthat Parkmanpersonifiedas'the enemy'and whichitself,by itsrelationto social andpsychological stresses, mayberevealing of muchinthenineteenth-century condition. That whichmorethan anythingelsedeniesthisbookthe title of definitiveisits failureto recreateParkmanasa fully integratedpersonality in a three-dimensional setting.Much of it isa patchworkof the subject's lettersandjournals, wearisomely longwhereParkmanisloquacious, perfunctorywhereheisreticent.That thebookis on thewholeclear,pleasing, andstillthebestintroductiontoitssubject resultsfrom bothof itsauthors- ParkmanandWade- havingclaimsto style. If Parkmanhimselfremainsa subject of abidinginterest,whatof his'Franceand Englandin North America'?In anaddress to theCanadianHistoricalAssociation in •96o, w.J. Ecclesexpressed the hopethat in future Parkmanwould 'be consulted morebythestudentof Americanliteratureor historiography thanbythestudentof history.'Buttothiscanbeaddedthefurther wishthatstudents of historynotcease to bestudents of historiography aswell. DALE MIQUELON Univer•ity q]'Sa.•katchewan at Saskatoon Histoire&'onomique dtt Qttdbec I85I--I896.JEAN HAMELIN et YVES ROBY. Pr6facepar ALBERT FAUCHER. Coil.Histoire6conomi(lt•e et sociale du Canadafran(;ais.Montr6al, Fides,•97•. PP.Ix,436.$•o.oo. Atla.•d'hi.stoire dconomique et ,sociale du Qudbec •85•-•9o•. JACQUES LETARTE. Coil. Histoire&onomiqueet sociale du Canadafranqais.Montreal,Fides,•97•. 44 cartes. $4.00. In Quebec,economichistories .•e.•ttive;tt m(ti•;re.•'e re•'.•emble;tt p(t.•.After Fernand Ouellet's forcefulinterpretationof I•owerCanada's economic andsocial historyfrom the Conquestto •85o,Jean Hamelin and YvesRobynow presenta somewhatless ambitious sequel dealingwiththesecond halfofthenineteenth century.Their workis a valuablecompilationof economic 'facts'gleanedfrom newspapers, o[ficialdocuments ,and contemporaryprinted works.Exceptfor a first sectiondealingwith continental pressures onQuebecandwithinternaldemographic pressures, thework isconcerned mainlywith descriptions: of the transportation'revolution'whichextendedthedominionof themarketthroughouttheprovince, of therural andurban economies,and of the exchangestructureswithin the area and with the outside world. For lack of continuous quantitativematerial,the authorshaveshiedaway 88 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW frommoreexplicit analysis. Noattempt ismadeatevaluating theeconomic policies of the provincialand municipalgovernments, and on the wholevery few value judgments areventured.The resultiseconomic historyin theoldfashion. The authorsareacutely conscious of thelimitations of theirwork.Their firstgoal was toprovidelaterstudents withabasic survey oftheeconomic history oftheperiod, andasdescriptive historythebookisasuccess. The chapters ontheforestindustries, onindustrialization, andonthelabourmovement areparticularly informative; they providedetailsof everyday lifewhichhavebeenignoredtoolong.Butthetreatment of somesectors of the economy savours of thechronology andthecatalogue. The chapters onagriculturemakepooruseof theauthors'painstaking calculations from census datawhichwentintothepreparation oftheaccompanying atlas. Thesepages failtoconvey fullythevariations inregional agricultural production andproductivity ,andthemaps intheatlas areof limitedbenefit for thatpurpose. The sectorial approach hasallowed theauthors tobemorethoroughthanOuellet had been in his earlier work. Their book is concerned with the structure and dimension ofthesectors of theeconomy, withaggregates andgeneral trends. About thearticulation of thesectors, onthehomogeneity of theeconomy, theauthors fall victimtotheirapproach andsaylittle.Continuity also compels themtogobackinto earlier periodsthan their own,and thisburdensthe narrative- a limitationinherent in surveying anunexplored field.The largermeritof thepioneering effortremains, andwhetstheappetitefor monographic works. Someobviousquestionssuggestthemselves about the period. What role did French-speaking Quebeckers playin the economic development of their province? Why thelarge-scale emigration- halfa millionfrom 185• to 1896?Did thetransition from a colonial economy to anindustrialeconomy bringabouta betterstandard of living? CouldQuebec avoid goingfroma'colonie anglaise' toa'satellite am(•ricain' (p. 362)?HamelinandRobyanswer cautiously thattherewaslittlealternative. Usingthe continental modelof Faucher andLamontagne andthemarket-integration modelof Douglass North, theyconclude thatgeographicaI andtechnological conditions combinedtoparkQuebec ontheperipheryof theNorthAmericaneconomy formuchof thelatenineteenth century.Improvements inagricultural techniques, morethanan unusualdemographicbehaviour,explain the human overflowfrom the farms. French-speaking Quebeckers wereunabletotaketheirplaceatthehelmofindustry because theywere'prisonniers d'unghettoculturelnaturel'(p. 28•). A socio-cultural approach,theauthorscontend,willbestaccount for thelackof a French-speaking industrialbourgeoisie (p. 340). Here Hamelin'sand Roby'skinshipto Ouelletbecomes apparent.Yet insteadof seeingsocio-cultural conditions asdecisive inhibitors of economic progress, theysuggest in their verylastparagraph(p. 376) a more Marxian type of interplay betweeneconomicstructure,socialstratification,and ideology.It isatantalizing conclusion toabooktoofull of modesty. Yet in explainingthe dependentand'retarded'character of Quebec capitalism in the North Americaneconomy, HamelinandRobyneglectto assess theimpactof evolvingformsof capitalistorganization. The corporatestructurewhichgained prominencein the latter part of the nineteenthcentury gave Americancapital flexibility,an indefinitelifespan,and the possibility of long-rangeplanning;these REVIEWS 89 advantages weredeniedthe small-scale familybusiness. Corporateenterprisewasa response to theincreasing scale of theAmericaneconomy; it wasnotan innovation required within the narrower confinesof the Quebec economy.But perhaps Quebec'sfailure to seizecontrolof its economicdestinyin the latter part of the nineteenthcenturymaybeviewedasastruggle between different...


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