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REVIEWS 319 Can a suddenincreasein gin consumption in the •73os and •74osstill be attributedto the transmission of theliquorbyKing William'sinvasion in •688? Can its equallysudden decrease stillbe attributedto parliamentary legislation? Or are bothmorelikelyto betraceable to successive expansions in demanddue to increases in real incomes? Is it now acceptable, in the light of the scholarly work doneon the Actsof Settlement, and especially on the certificatesystem, to interpretthe operation of the actsmerelyasa roaringtradein paupers? Is it accurateto statethat the Actsof Settlement 'remainedlargelyuntouched' in view of the fact that their operationwassuspended in •795? Somecareless slips alsomar the text: ThomasGray, the poet, hasbecomeJohn Gray; Bishop GibsonhasbecomeBishopGilson;Edward Gibbon'sgrandfatherhasbecome his father; 'Jacobite' hasall too oftenbecome'Jacobin';and the Elder Pitt is givenanearldom in •76• ratherthan•766. JoHN Nomus Universityo[ BritishColumbia The Colonial 01•ce, •868-•89•. BRIANL. BLAKELEY. Durham, Nc, Duke University Press, I97•. Pp.xvi, i95. $9.5 o. According to Sir RobertHerbert,whowasitspermanent headfor twenty-one years,the ColonialOfficepossessed 'a high characteras beingan officein which the work is well doneand the men work well togetherwith a gentlemanlygoodfeeling .'Mr Blakeley's carefulstudyconfirms Herbert'snotentirely disinterested assessment. It finallylaysto restthe old notionthat the Colonial Office alternatedbetweenperiodsof slumberand arbitrarybehaviourduring the nineteenthcentury,only findinga purposeunder JosephChamberlainat the end.It bringsout insteadthat the Officewasa pioneerin implementing opencompetition, in formulating a sensible divisionof labour,in givingits permanent officials andevenitsclerks a considerable share in decision-making. In short,in the longtransformation of Britishgovernment departments during the nineteenth centuryfrom a condition in whichworkwaslargelyperformed byministers to a modern bureaucracy with specialized supporting functions, the ColonialOfficewasa leadinginnovator. Mr Blakeley hasexamined theofficeduringtheyears in whichitsoperations weredirectedby Sir RobertHerbert,the urbane,disciplined, and somewhat cynical permanent undersecretary from i87i to i89e. Wiselyhe hasbegunhis studya littleearlier,with theadventof thefirstGladstone ministry, whengood administrative practices from the ForeignOfficeand the Treasurywereintroducedinto the officeby Lord Granville,aidedby RobertLowe.He describes changing procedures broughtaboutby telegraphic communication and an expanding empire,looks criticallyat thepersonnel of theoffice(hisevaluation of Herbert is noteworthy)and examines the relations betweenthe officeand theTreasury andtwoof thecrownagencies. His analysis supersedes theearlier careless history byH.L. Hall andadmirably complements studies of theearlier ColonialOfficebyD.M. Young,E.T. Williams,andJ.W. Cell,aswellasR.V. Kubicek's discussionof the office under Chamberlain. 320 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW The limitations of thebookarethose whichareinescapable in a workwhich does notdiscuss policyandtherefore cannotconvincingly evaluate theefficiency of the administrative machinery.One would have wishedfor more attention to the ColonialOffice's placein thewiderstructure of Britishgovernment: its relationship with Parliament,with the cabinet,with cabinetcommittees, and royal commissions. There is little on the sometimes awkwardco-existence betweenthe officeand the colonialagents-general, the Canadianhigh commissioner ,and the 'specialpublic' which improvedtransportation broughtincreasingly to London.LeonardWhite oncewrotethat an administrative system istheproductof technological capacity, of theexecutive talentofitsgeneration, and the moralclimateof its age.Mr Blakeley hasdealtdefinitively with the firstof these influences, less adequately with thesecond, andhardlyat all with the third. In spiteof theselimitations he hasproduced a studywhichwill be extremely valuablefor all students of Britishcolonial policyin the nineteenth century. D.M.L. FARR CarletonUniversity FredericWilliamMaitland: A Life. c.x-Ls. FIFOOT. Studies in LegalHistory. Cambridge, Mass.,Harvard UniversityPress[Toronto,Saunders], •97x. Pp. xiv, 3x3. $• x.oo. Even at the distanceof three-quarters of a centurythe work of Frederic William Maitland remains,in the wordsof Professor S.F.CI.Milsom, 'a still living authority.'It would be difficult to find anotherhistorianwhosework covered a similarlybroadrangeof topics aboutwhomthe samecouldbe said. Maitland'sscholarship is still with us,aliveand well; indeedit is perhaps in bettershapethan Maitlandhimselfwouldhavewished aftersolonga time. By and largethepassage of timehasincreased Maitland'sstature asa scholar asfurther work revealsthe depthand wisdomof hisjudgments. His workis a constant necessity aswellasa joy andinspiration to everystudent engaged in the studyof thecommon law anda number of relatedfields. Dissenters speak of themselves as'pious heretics' andwritewith sincere apologies andgenuine misgivings, while the numbers of admirers, amongwhomthe authorof this reviewis one,are legion.If all thisand a gooddealmoremaybe saidof Maitland's scholarship, what may be saidof Maitland the man? The latestbiographyby Mr C.H.S. Fifoot seeks to put beforehis reader 'Maitland himself,hisqualitiesof mind and spiritastheseare revealedin his writings,amonghis friends-themselves eminent-and in the midst of his family.'Mr Fifoothasspecifically excluded fromhisbookanysustained assessmentof Maitland'sscholarship, a wisedecision in viewof the judgments on scholarship that occasionally creepin. Thisisthe firstfull-scale biography of Maitland, the...


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