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314 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW usefulintroduction for newcomers to thefield.The sketch of colonial governmeritand economy, thoughfar toobrief,isconfident and accurate,and Burns givesgoodattentionto Brazil (hisownarea,andonethat isoftenneglected in surveys). The nineteenth century-alsoinadequately covered in manyworksiswell treated.Asan interpretiveessay, the bookshouldbe of somevalue,and theauthor's boldhandlingof controversial issues will serve to stimulate students. D.L. RABY University of Toronto Landlord and Peasant in Colonial Oaxaca. w•.•.• B. TAYLOR. Stanford, Stanford University Press, •972.Pp.xvi,287,illus.$io.oo. This work,originallyproduced asa doctoraldissertation, is a carefulstudy of land tenureand Spanish-Indian relations in Oaxacaduringthe entirecolonial period.Basedlargelyon archivalmaterials, it is a highlyusefulcontribution to the studyof colonialLatin Americanhistoryand will havea major impact on the field. By examiningclosely land ownership and usagein the limited area of the Valleyof Oaxacafrom thesixteenth century throughto thenineteenth, Taylor demonstrates that there, unlike northern Mexico, large haciendasdid not becomethe dominantsystem of land holding.Indian caciques and pueblos wereableto maintaina tenacious holdovermuchof thevalley's lands- particularlythe mostfertile ones-throughoutcolonialtimes.In mostcases Indians provedwellableto defendthemselves by recourse to thecourts or byphysical force.They werealsoquiteadeptat usingbothagainst members of theirown race.On the otherhand,exceptfor mayorazgos and thosechurchlandswhich wereentailed,Spanish ownership in thevalleytendedto be tenuous andoften concentrated in less fertile areas. Haciendas suffered from serious labour shortagesas debt peonage wasquite unsatisfactory. It did not become hereditary until afterindependence, wascircumscribed by colonial legislation, andIndians frequently ran awayfromhacendados to whomtheywerein debt.Therewas therefore muchturn-overin the ownership of Spanish lands.Thus,in spiteof the fact that the churchincreasingly becamea major land owner,by independence Indiansstillretainedthelargest portionof thevalley's lands. The major contribution of Taylor'sstudyis,of course, that it demonstrates that Francois Chevalier's description of thegreathaciendas of northernMexico canno longerbeusedcarelessly asa modelfor land tenurethroughout colonial Spanish Americaand New Spainin particular.Taylor has alsoproventhe needfor furthercarefulareastudies of the typethat he hasproduced; only throughsuchwill weultimatelybe ableto domorethanto seethrougha glass darkly.His bookshouldbe read by everyserious studentof colonialLatin Americanhistory. M.J. PENTON University o]Lethbridge ...


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