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REVIEWS 303 Von Schoultzis invariablydescribed as Polishin accounts of the aftermath of the Canadianrebellions, but, in fact, he wasa Finn of Swedish extraction. The second sonof Nils FredrikyonSchoultz, a circuitjudge,he wasbornon 7 OctoberI8o7 in Kuopio,Finland,whichwasthenpart of Sweden.He was born to a life of adventure.When he wasscarcely a yearold, hismotherwas forcedto fleewith Nils andhiselderbrotherbeforean invadingRussian army. By the timehe wastwenty-five he had helda commission in theSwedish Svea Regiment of artillery (x8•3-3o), joined the Polishpatriots in their revolt againstRussia,escaped after beingtakenprisoner by the Russians, and served with the French ForeignLegionin Africa. Freshfrom theseadventures he arrivedin Florencein x83• to be reunitedwith hismother,hisbrother,Carl, and his sister,Johanna.In Florencehe met Ann Campbell, a friend of his sister,and after a temperatecourtship theywere marriedon 2o March x834 , more asa resultof the wishes of their mothersthan of the two youngpeople involved.Nils tookhisbride,accompanied by her motherand sister, to livein Karlskrona,Sweden.During the next two yearstwo daughters wereborn and he sought, with limitedsuccess, to adjustto his new responsibilities. In x836 he went to Englandto arrangehismother-in-law's finances and to promotea red dye he had invented,but insteadof returninghome,he sailedfor New York. In the United Stateshe encouraged the belief that he was a refugee Polishpatriot, replacingGustafwith Scholtewskii as his secondname. He achievedsomesuccess in applyinghis techniqueof camphorrefiningto the purificationof salt brine, but he soonbecameassociated with the Hunters' Lodgeand accepted, withoutquestion, the beliefthat Upper Canadians were eagerto beliberated fromBritishdomination. His greatloveof libertyledhim to hisexecution on the gallows at Fort Henry on 8 Decembert838. Ella Pippinghassoughtto understand her great-grandfather in emotional and psychological terms.'How couldhe deserthisyoungwife and children?' is for her the major question. This is quite natural, but shehasconcentrated on thisquestion at the expense of adequately developing the politicalbackgroundof the eventsin whichyon Schoultzbecameinvolved.This defectis rectifiedsomewhat by John Gray'sepilogue,but still, sincethe Battle of the Windmill was the climax of yon Schoultz'career,it is to be regrettedthat Mrs Pippingprovidesonly a superficial, fragmentedaccountand makesno attemptto resolve significant discrepancies of detailin theseveral contemporary accounts of the battle. WILLIAM ORM $BY Brock University The Gunnersof Canada:The History of the Royal Regimento[ Canadian Artillery. n: x9•9-x967. COI•ONEn o.w.I•. NmHOI•SO•.Toronto, McClelland andStewart,•97•. PP.xviii,76o,maps, illus.$•8.5o. ColonelNicholson's firstvolumeof The Gunnerso[ Canada,which dealt with the historyof the RoyalRegimentof CanadianArtilleryfrom itsinceptionto the end of the First World War, wasa remarkablyable and successful book. $0•, THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW This second volume,whichcarriesthe storyforwardthroughthe yearsof the long armistice,the SecondWorld War, and Korea to the unificationof the services in •968, is in no way inferior to the first. Taken together,the two volumes undoubtedly constitute thebestcorps historyyetproduced in Canada. What makes this achievement the more creditable is that the second volume in particularpresented theauthorwith an extremely difficultandcomplex task. Between•9•9 and x967 Canadiangunners served in Canadain militiaunits,in c•F training centres,in divisionalartilleries,coast defencebatteries,and regulararmy units; they servedas well in Britain, participatedin the illconceived and disastrous raid on Dieppe,foughtin Sicily,Italy, North West Europe,and Korea, and formeda part of the Canadianbrigadewith •ATO forces in Germany.Moreover,theRoyalRegiment of CanadianArtilleryisfar frombeingonehomogenous whole.Account hadto betakenof field,medium, heavy,garrison, anti-tank,andanti-aircraftbranches, eachwith a differentrole and organization, to saynothingof survey regiments, rocketbatteries, and air o•'squadrons. It isa markof ColonelNicholson's abilities asa militaryhistorian that he hasbeenableto pull togetherall thesediverseactivities into a single, readablebookthat capturesthe authenticflavourof the timeswith whichit deals. Naturally enough,the greaterpart of the book-eleven chaptersout of fifteen-is concernedwith the SecondWorld War. The first two chapters describethe difficultiesof training and equippinggunner units during the interwaryears, with theworkof the CanadianArtilleryAssociation, andwith the slow and inadequaterearmamentprogrammefinally initiated by the governmentin mid-•936. The two final chapters,apart from dealingrather brieflywith the Korean War, are devotedto organizational changes, service with the •Au'o brigadein Europe, centennialcelebrations, and regimental affairs.Althoughthese introductory and concluding chapters will beof absorbing interestto gunners and ex-gunners, they are unlikelyto provokemuch enthusiasm from anywideraudience. Fortunately, however, thebookstands or fallson its treatmentof the work of the gunsin the Second World War, and hereit issuperb. Wisely,the authordecidedto deal as a rule with events...


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