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REVIEWS 217 opposed bonus legislation; whilecorporate liberalOwenD. Youngof General Electric advocated a bigincrease in theloanprovisions of bonus certificates. If WrightPatman istheheroofthepolitics of thebonus, thenPelhamGlassford ,patrician,retiredbrigadiergeneral,World War x veteran,and chiefof theWashington policeforce, istheheroof theBonus March.He aloneamonga hostof city,federal,andmilitaryofficials seemed ableto understand and work withtheBonus Expeditionary Force.He hadthecapacity to keepa coolhead in themidstofirrationalfearsaboutCommunist infiltration,mountingvagrancy, and insurrectionary violence. Chiefof Staff GeneralDouglasMacArthur and Secretary ofWar Patrick Hurley,in contrast, seemed eager forconflict andconfrontation .The author conclusively shows that MacArthur ignoredHoover's instructions on e8July•93•. Insteadof co-operating with Glassford's police,he usurped them;instead ofsurrounding onlytheareawhereveterans hadsquatted in downtown Washington, hecleared theentireDistrict.Evenmoresignificant, there isevidence tosuggest thatMacArthur ignored Hoover's explicit orders not to taketroops across thePotomac to theAnacostia Camp.At midnightof the •8th, however, thegeneral pressed on,with teargasand bayonets, andin so doingeasta lasting shadow of inhumanity andruthlessness across theHoover administration. ButHooveronlyadded tohisproblems, forinstead ofsacking his insubordinate chiefof staffhefabricated selfrighteous andmisleading explanations of his behaviour. Thetragedy at Anacostia seems tohavehadnoapparent effect onthepolitics of the bonus, despite the author'sassertions to the contrary.Patmanurged veterans to stayat homein future,andNew Dealers cutexisting benefits. Nor didtheCongressional reversal of Roosevelt's •936vetoturnontheepisode. The important consequences of theBonus March,asthe authorshows in hislast chapter, areto befoundin therealmof symbol andmyth.What Professor Danielsthusloses bya gapbetween thefirstand second panels of histriptych hegains in thethird,wherehechronicles thecontinuing fightovertheBonus Marchhistory byideological partisans in thefollowing decades. ROBERT CUFF YorkUniversity LaborOrganizations in theUnitedStates andMexico:A Historyo[ theirRelations .x•,avE¾ t,. LEWNSTZ•N. Westport,Conn.,Greenwood Publishing, I97•. Pp.x, •58. $•x.oo. This bookdeserves a wider audience than its prosaictitle is likely to attract. Though theexpansion of business enterprise beyond America's borders iswell documented, few researchers havedevotedattentionto similardevelopments among American tradeunions. Levenstein recounts theepisodic forces which ledtrade-unionleaders in theUnited Statesto reachacross theborder.Throughouttheyears fromGompers to Meany,muchmorethana friendly handshake hasbeen sought. At firsttheauthor catalogues Gompers' motives withoutassigningapriority , noting thatthet,r•.leader saw anopportunity towieldinfluence 218 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW abroadin orderto strengthen hispersonal position at home.Later he observes that Gompers' fear of thexwwwasfundamental to hisMexicanventure.The Mexicans weretiredof dancing theWilsontango,andworkedthroughGompers to pursuade the president to play a non-interventionist tune.William Green inherited Gompers' policybutallowed itsvehicle, thePan-American Federation of Labor[rAFt.I,to sinkintoobscurity until thec•obeganto takean interest in Mexicans.World War x•submerged rivaldesin a commonanti-fascist front whichwaseasilytransformed intoanti-communism afterward.The authorconcludes that few bread-and-butter gainsresulted from theseefforts,and argues thatGompers andhissuccessors haveall suffered fromthelackof an ideology like Marxism which could link the interests of different workers and offer commongoals . This pointappears somewhat forcedby the author's difficulty in connecting the Gompers era with the Cold War years.The firsthalf of hisbook,dealing mostlywith Gompers'part in the MexicanRevolution,restsupon archival materialsfoundin both countries, whereas the narrativeof post-WorldWar • eventsis basedalmostexclusively upon pressaccounts and convention proceedings . Withoutaccess to Meany'spapers aswell asto relevantpublicdocuments ,Levenstein cannotmakethe samedetailedand authoritativeanalysis of menandmotives whichdistinguishes hisaccount oftheearlieryears. In attempting to bridgethisgap,Levenstein over-stresses the lackof an ideology which wouldgivecoherence tohistheme,andin sodoinghebecomes ratherideological himself. Furthermore, hefailstorelateGompers' interest in MexicotoAmerica's growinghegemony overthe Caribbean, while hisrelianceuponthe journalists for theColdWar years hastheunintended virtueof placing Mexican-American labourrelations in a broader, interpretative context. Perhaps thesensitivity of mensuchasGompers, Lewis,andMeany (aswell asMorones andLombardo Toledano)to considerations of powerunitesthem morethan the presence or absence of ideology. Thesemen usuallyfearedbig government because ofitscapacity tointervene intrade-union affairs. Theyoften defended theirinterests through appeals to patriotism. American labourleaders sold'democracy' abroadin ordertowin favoursat home.Mexicanleaders tried touseGompers andGreentoprevent American interference in Mexicanaffairs. It isdoubtful whether a common left-wing ideology wouldhavechanged matters much. There are somelesser faultsin thisbook; the discussion of •ww-Mexican relationsis whollyinadequate,and the author'sstoryspreads after World War n beyond itstitletootherLatin Americanlabourgroups. More important,Levensteindidnotconsult theIglesias andMurraypapers used bySinclairSnowin his study of therAFt.,nordoes hereferto Snow's published account. Butthebook is well written,its conclusions thoughtful,and it doesreveala hithertolittleknowndimension of Americanexpansionism in the WesternHemisphere. The earlychapters dealingwith labourrelations from •9•o to World War • gowell beyond previous accounts andareenhanced by prodigious research in Mexican REVIEWS 219 laboursources, newspapers, government documents, andinterviews. Levenstein's account ofthepostwar years willnodoubtsuffice untilarchival materials become available. ROB•.RT B•a•COCK WellsCollege The RadicalLe[t...


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