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212 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW mentalissues andthebodyof thebookisdevoted to a detailedandpainstaking exposition of howthese opposing forces complicated the development of a coordinatedBritishpolicyin the Middle East. This particularconflict,as the author shows, was resolvedby the gradual reductionof India's controlover Mesopotamia from •9•6 onwards.Ultimately the final coupagainstBritishIndian influencecameasa part of a broaderpolicyreorganization in I9•o-I when the Britishgovernment, recognizing the bemuddled stateof its general policyin theMiddleEast,overrode interdepartmental rivalries andcentralized controlin theColonialOfficeunderthestrong directionof Churchill. In conclusion, Professor Buschcertainlyproves hisgeneralthesis, thoughat the sametime I think he tendsto overemphasize the complications caused by British-Indian influence. Without that influence them would still have been interArab rivalry betweenIbn Sa'ud and the Hashimiterulersand Britain would undoubtedly stillhavemadepledges to theFrenchandZionists in basic conflict withArabaspirations. It alsoseems tomethatif thepressure for British controlof Mesopotamia had not comefrom India it mightwell havebeenforthcoming froma differentsource, namelyBritishoil andshipping interests. Anotherweakness of thebookisitsalmosttotal relianceon Britishsources, thoughthe author has been meticulous in the use of this material. The book is well written and Professor Buschhas been outstandingly successful in reducingan incredibly difficultandtangled webofevents intoa systematic, organic, andunderstandable pattern.Scholars interested in Arabnationalism orpossible relationships between India andArabnationalism will findlittleofinterest in thisstudy, but I strongly recommend it toall those interested in Britishimperialpolicyin theMiddle East. E.G. MOULTON University o[Manitoba UNITED STATES The Search/oranAmericanIndian Identity: Modern Pan-IndianMovements. r•AZEL W. rmRTZB•.RO. Syracuse, Syracuse University Press [Toronto,Bumsand MacEachern],I97•. Pp.xvi, 326,illus.$I4.5o. This informativeanalysis regardingthe effortsof certainAmericanIndiansto establisha meaningfulrelationshipbetweenthemselves and the twentiethcenturysociety of whichtheywerea part shouldbe of immense importance to anyoneconcerned with relations between groups of varyingracialbackgrounds. The narrative,with anhistorical introduction anda carefully-argued conclusion for future trends,concentrates on the years•9•• to •934 and benefits from the emphasis. The author,a ColumbiaUniversityhistoryprofessor, is soundin her research and fair in her judgments. Althoughthereis somerepetition,and because of thenatureof thesubject some partsareconsiderably moreinteresting andrevealing thanothers, thebookmeritsthehighest praise. The sense of a common identitywasslowto developamongUnited States REVIEWS 213 Indians, who were scatteredand tribally-oriented.The reservationsystem, absence ofmodernmeans ofcommunication, andapplication of individualallotmentprovisions oftheDawesActof •887postponed development of anysignificantjoint racialeffortuntil after •9oo.It iswith a fascinating description of the varied individualsresponsible for the foundingof the Societyof American Indiansin •9• • that thishistoryof Pan-Indian activitiesbegins.While a white sociologist, FayetteMcKenzieof Ohio State,providedthe initial impetus,it is uponthepapers of the Seneca anthropologist, Arthur C. Parker,who served as secretary-treasurer, editor,and finallyaspresident, that the discussion isbased. Full presentation of such matters asindividualfeuds, relations with whiteassociatesandgovernmental members, anddebates regarding proposed Indianpolicies whichsucha source makes possible bringsto life what in a brieferversionwould have provedmeaningless and dull. As one followsthe societyfrom its early decisions throughitsmostsuccessful yearsto anultimatecollapse broughtabout by internaljealousies andthe distractions of the FirstWorld War, onecanfully appreciate theorganization ashavingintroduced an approach to groupidentificationwhichwouldleavea lastingmark on future Indian attitudes. The reformapproach of theSociety of AmericanIndianswouldbeeffectively revivedwhenthe twenties werefollowedby the New Deal innovations of John Collier,commissioner of Indian affairs,and the resultingestablishment of the NationalCongress of AmericanIndians.The authoris particularlynotablefor stressing that the extentof differences described asseparating DawesAct supporters from lateradvocates of tribal self-determination hasoftenbeengreatly exaggerated andthatthepurposes ofbothreformgroups hadmuchin common. But Pan-Indianism wasnot confinedto debates overnationalpolicyamong well-educated Indianswho had considerable experience in white societyand turnedto thelong-established typeof politicalpressure groupin hopeof raising the status of Indiansgenerally. Beforelongtwo otherformsof Pan-Indianism had becomeimportant.The first, arisingamongthe increasing number of Indiansin Americancities,resulted from their seeking to relieveeconomic and personal problems by unitingin fraternalassociations modeledon well-established whitecounterparts. In organizations suchastheTepeeSociety, theyjoined with fellowIndiansfrom widelydifferentareasin stressing a commonIndian experience. Evenmoreinfluentialin stirringpride in beingIndian, however, wasthedevelopment among young reservation Indiansof religious groups based ontheuseof peyote.Findingthemselves facingthe bitter opposition of Indian reformers, bothIndian andwhite,who regardedtheir activitiesasimmoraland dangerous, leaders of thesegroupsbeganin •9•8 to seekstateand national incorporation andsuccessfully avoided dissolution throughcourtandadministrativedecisions upholding theirrighttofreedom ofworship. Thisvolumesoexcellently achieves itspurpose that onecanonlyregretthat theyears specially emphasized arenotincluded onthetitle page.AsPan-Indian developments of the yearssince•934 are morecompletely presented, theywill be more soundly basedbecause of the fullnessof the treatmentgiven to the pioneer organizations here.In spiteof footnotes beingplacedat theend,a rela- 214 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW tivelyuseless index,anda tendency toexcessive repetition of certain conclusions, thisisa workthatdeserves tobewidelyread. LORING B. PRIEST LycomingCollege The Plain Peopleo[ Boston,•83o-•86o: A Studyin City Growth.PETER...


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