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REVIEWS 211 These aresmallcriticisms. DrinkandtheVictorians isa veryimportant book. It isessential reading foranystudent of VictorianEngland. BRIAN HEENEY Trent University Britain,India, andtheArabs,•9•4-•9•. BRITO•COO•'•.R BUSCM. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, University ofCalifornia Press, x97x.Pp.xii,522,maps. $14.5 o. Following closely uponhisearlierstudyon Britainand thePersianGull z894- •9•4, Professor Buschhaslogicallygoneon to examineBritishpolicyin the adjoiningareaof theMiddle Eastfromthe outbreak of World War • to x92x. Hisparticular focus in thislatest study isonBritishpolicytowards theArabsand moreespecially theinfluence of theBritish-Indian government andadministrationontheformulation andexecution of thatpolicy. The authorfullyacknowledgesthe importanceof Anglo-Frenchand Anglo-Zionist relations,aswell as directArabinfluences, on the development of Britishpolicy,but concentrates mainlyuponIndia'srolesinceit 'hasneverreceived the separate treatment itsinfluence warrants'(p. viii). In thislatter contention Professor Buschis undoubtedly correct andhisstudyconstitutes an originalcontribution to knowledge of Britishimperialbehaviourduringthis crucialand difficultperiodin the historyof the Middle East. BritishIndia, ofcourse, hada longhistory of involvement in theaffairsof the region,but it wasonlywith theintrusion of itsarmedforces into Mesopotamia beginning in the autumnof •9x4 that the British-Indiangovernment became involvedin a majorwayin theveryhinterlandof the Arab world.In the first chapter,whichgives a detailedanalysis of thisevent,Professor Busch shows that whileBritish-Indian officials werenotresponsible forinitiatingtheinvasion, they enthusiastically ralliedtoitssupport onceLondonmadethe decision, and India supplied themanpower, the means, andthe controlof the actualoperations in the early stages. In essence, MesopotamiabecameIndia's war. In view of the heavysacrifices involvedandtheadministrative traditionsof theIndian services, Mesopotamia cametoberegarded byleadingBritish-Indian officials asa legitimate field for their imperialexpansion. Consequently, Indian authoritieswere notonlylargelyresponsible for theill-fatedadvance fromBasratoBaghdad,but also favoured theoutrightannexation ofmuchof theoccupied territoryandthe establishment of an Indian styleadministration underthe controlof Delhi. Unfortunatelyfor the British-Indianservices, theselatter ideasran directly counterto thepoliticalaspirations of the Arabsin Mesopotamia aswell asthe ideas of theBritishForeignOfficein Londonandtheirofficials operating outof Cairo.Concerned withthebroader issues ofthewar,ForeignOfficeofficials were intentuponthedefeatoftheOttomanempireandnaturallyanxious toutilizethe forceof Arabnationalism for thatpurpose, a policywhichwasanathema to the Indiangovernment since it regarded nationalism asa forcetoberesisted. Besides, British-Indian officials fearedthatoverlyvigorous Britishinitiatives against the Ottomanempiremightleadto politicaldisaffection by devoutIndian Muslims. In short,British-Indianand ForeignOfficepolicy-makers differedon funda- 212 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW mentalissues andthebodyof thebookisdevoted to a detailedandpainstaking exposition of howthese opposing forces complicated the development of a coordinatedBritishpolicyin the Middle East. This particularconflict,as the author shows, was resolvedby the gradual reductionof India's controlover Mesopotamia from •9•6 onwards.Ultimately the final coupagainstBritishIndian influencecameasa part of a broaderpolicyreorganization in I9•o-I when the Britishgovernment, recognizing the bemuddled stateof its general policyin theMiddleEast,overrode interdepartmental rivalries andcentralized controlin theColonialOfficeunderthestrong directionof Churchill. In conclusion, Professor Buschcertainlyproves hisgeneralthesis, thoughat the sametime I think he tendsto overemphasize the complications caused by British-Indian influence. Without that influence them would still have been interArab rivalry betweenIbn Sa'ud and the Hashimiterulersand Britain would undoubtedly stillhavemadepledges to theFrenchandZionists in basic conflict withArabaspirations. It alsoseems tomethatif thepressure for British controlof Mesopotamia had not comefrom India it mightwell havebeenforthcoming froma differentsource, namelyBritishoil andshipping interests. Anotherweakness of thebookisitsalmosttotal relianceon Britishsources, thoughthe author has been meticulous in the use of this material. The book is well written and Professor Buschhas been outstandingly successful in reducingan incredibly difficultandtangled webofevents intoa systematic, organic, andunderstandable pattern.Scholars interested in Arabnationalism orpossible relationships between India andArabnationalism will findlittleofinterest in thisstudy, but I strongly recommend it toall those interested in Britishimperialpolicyin theMiddle East. E.G. MOULTON University o[Manitoba UNITED STATES The Search/oranAmericanIndian Identity: Modern Pan-IndianMovements. r•AZEL W. rmRTZB•.RO. Syracuse, Syracuse University Press [Toronto,Bumsand MacEachern],I97•. Pp.xvi, 326,illus.$I4.5o. This informativeanalysis regardingthe effortsof certainAmericanIndiansto establisha meaningfulrelationshipbetweenthemselves and the twentiethcenturysociety of whichtheywerea part shouldbe of immense importance to anyoneconcerned with relations between groups of varyingracialbackgrounds. The narrative,with anhistorical introduction anda carefully-argued conclusion for future trends,concentrates on the years•9•• to •934 and benefits from the emphasis. The author,a ColumbiaUniversityhistoryprofessor, is soundin her research and fair in her judgments. Althoughthereis somerepetition,and because of thenatureof thesubject some partsareconsiderably moreinteresting andrevealing thanothers, thebookmeritsthehighest praise. The sense of a common identitywasslowto developamongUnited States ...


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