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REVIEWS 201 style, themajorweakness ofthebook.He writestoomuchlikeanacademic Salem Bland. On balance,The SocialPassion is an importantcontributionto Canadian religious and socialhistory.Studies of Canadianreformhavealwaysbeenincomplete withoutthe socialgospel. Now our studies of the historiography of these years will beincomplete withoutreference to The SocialPassion. MICHAEL BLISS Universityo[ Toronto Canadian-Soviet Relations between the World Wars. ALoYsIUS BALAWYDER. Toronto,University of TorontoPress, I97•, Pp.x, 248.$•.5o. Mr Trudeau, duringhis visit to Moscowin I97 i, proposed a joint CanadaSovietcommission with the aim of expandingtrade. Pointingto the present imbalancelargelythroughthe saleof wheat, PremierKosyginsuggested that Canadashould buy morefrom Russia. At the time of writing the commission hasyettomeetbutwhatevertheoutcome, obviously tradebetweentheussRand thiscountryis stilla livelyissue after morethan fifty yearsof communist rule in Russia. At the time of the Bolshevik coupof I9I 7 Canadawasfilling largeRussian orders for war materials; in viewof the uncertainnatureof the newregime, shipments weresuspended and finallystopped. In 1918Canada,with otherinterventionists , senttroopsboth to North Russiaand Siberia.Not the leastof Canada's motives in providing a contingent for Siberia wasto establish a flourishing trade across the Pacificwith a regionnot then undercommunist control. It is hardlysurprising that with the failure of the expeditionthe Bolsheviks placedCanadians in the samecategory as the British,French,American,and Japanese interventionists who had made'predatoryattacks'on Russia..Canadian -Soviet relationsbetweenthe world warsgot off to a shakystartand the pathof tradethereafter wasalways thorny. Professor Balawydertracesthe historyof thoserelationsand, thoughtrade wasthe major issue, throwsfreshlight on Canada'semerging nationhood and increasing controlof foreignpolicy.The policyof the Comintern- the overthrowof capitalism andtheestablishment of 'the dictatorship of theproletariat and of an international sovietrepublic'- and the activities of the Communist party of Canadatowardsthat end, quite clearlydisturbed Canadian-Soviet relations asdid the dissemination of communist propaganda from the officeof the Soviettrade delegation in Montreal.Relationsbetweenthe two countries were alsoinfluencedby industrialists, labour unions,and businessmen - all pressing for trade- andby ethnicgroups, notablyFrenchCanadians, whowere hostile to Soviet attitudes towards the church and democratic institutions and whoadvocated an embargo on Russian products. Thesepressures, at onetime or another,wereinstrumental in influencing government policies. This isa scholarly study,and onethat hasbeensorelyneeded.It is divided intoclearly-defined periods:of quasidiplomatic relations from I9•4-7; rupture, 202 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW •927-9; renewedrelations markedby the heavydumpingof Sovietgoodsin Canada,•929-3•; the embargo on Sovietproducts,•93•-6; and a final phase from •936,whena newagreement wasto bringincreased tradeby •939. In the future,asin the past,Canadian-Soviet relations are likelyto be motivatedprimarilyby commercial considerations and for that reason aloneProfessor Balawyder 's bookisa valuablecontribution. JOHN SWETTENHAM NationalMuseumso[ Canada TheWretched o[Canada: Letters toR.B.Bennett, •93o-35 . Editedby Gr,•¾soN andr•mHa•. ,.•ss. Social Historyof Canada.Toronto,University of TorontoPress, •97•. PP.xxviii, •99- $•2.5o cloth,$3.95paper. TheDirtyThirties. Editedbyr•mmm.HORN. Toronto,CoppClark,•972.PP. xxxii,728,illus.$9.95cloth,$5.95paper. At longlast,Canadian historiography ismoving intotheneglected fieldof social history. It is appropriate and significant that the thirtiesshould providethe setting andTorontotheacademic initiative. The thirties haslongbeentheuntapped lodeforbothsocial andpolitical historians, and,withToronto publishers leading theway,weshould soon knowmoreaboutourrecent pastandtheclass structure of Canada. The Wretched of Canadais the firstvolumein the University of Toronto Press series,'The Social History of Canada.' It isalsothe onlyonebased on hitherto unpublished material, theothervolumes being neweditions of seminal workssuchasGoldwinSmith's Canadaand the CanadianQuestion andH.B. Ames' TheCityBelow theHill. Editors Grayson andBliss havechosen 168letters fromtheseveral thousand written to PrimeMinister R.B.Bennett during his fivemiserable years in office. In theirexcellent introduction theyexplain that withinthelimits'of animpressionistic method' theyhavepreserved 'roughly thesame proportions ofletters fromregions, age andoccupational groups, people in needof jobs, money, clothes, etc.,thatarefoundin theBennett Papers.' A logical approach, surely, butI woulddisagree strongly withtheircontention thatthese letters camefrom'theforgotten people, thesubmerged tenth.'No onecould deny thatthese people werepoorandin manycases desperate, but I think even acursory examination oftheletters willreveal thatthecorrespondents werefromthesolid middle class - people whotemporarily hadtheir comfortable economic underpinnings knocked fromunder thembytheDepression . When good times returned withthewar,these people nolonger were poor butresumed theirmore secure middle-class positions. Therealpoor, those who remain thatwayregardless ofworldeconomic fluctuations, never writeto their prime minister. Theydidn'tin thethirties andtheydon'ttoday. Theyexist beyond thepale, beyond theconsciousness ofgovernment representatives and investigators, social workers andhistorians. Thus atrained mechanic writes in •931thathisseven children arestarving despite thedirect relieffromthecityof Calgary. 'I wasbornin Stormont Co ...


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