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322 THE CANADIAN HISTORICAL REVIEW tion to Lauderharmednational unity.But Bourassa's pointwasthat harmony between thetwopeoples required thattheyagree thattheinterests of Canada be placed ahead ofthose ofGreatBritain. Bourassa feltthathewasfurthering Canadiannationhood by opposing Laurier's policies which,hebelieved, wereleading toa defactoimperial militaryunity. Finallythebookcontains a number of innuendoes of whichspace permits the mentionof three. It is claimed,without a shredof evidence,that Bourassa wasa "selfish" boy.Theauthor tellsusthatBourassa referred to English Canadians of OntarioasPrussians, withoutmentioning the severe restrictions on the French language in Ontario schools imposed byRegulation 17.(Incidentally Mr Morrow never asks himself whether thisfactmayhaveaccounted forBourassa's lackof enthusiasm forthewareffort.) Heheads a chapter, in,which hedescribes Bourassa after1918asbeingdepressed, with a quotation: 'WeNationalists are notdevotees to Democracy." Anyonewhohadnotreadmuch Bourassa might easfiy haveconcluded thattheNationalist leader wasbeginning todoubt repre• sentative government. In fact,in thepassage fromwhichthequotation istaken, Bourassa wascomplaining that the two majorparties werescorning public opinion; there ishere noattack ontheparliamentary system. Thebest partofthebook isthebibliography, although Professor Ramsay Cook willbesurprised tofindthathisCanada andtheFrench-Canadian Question isa "competent journalistic account ofthehistory ofQuebec." Ios•.PHL•.vrrT University of Ottawa Canada andthe Russian Revolution: The Impactof the World's FirstSocialist Revolution onLabor andPolitics inCanada. ByTxMBvcx. Toronto: Progress Books. 1967.Pp.98.$1.00. THECENTENNIAL OFTHECANADIAN CONFEDERATION andthefiftieth anniversary of theRussian Revolution andoftheSoviet state seemingly served asanoccasion for theappearance ofthebook under review. Butthiscoincidence wasused bythe author onlyasa starting pointforananalsisofthatcornlexsub'ect ofCanada's Y P historical ties withtherest oftheworld. Canadian historiography has offered many studies inthefieldofforeign trade andtheeconomic anddiplomatic relations of Canada. TimBuck's book issignificant inthat itfills thegap inasubiect neglected by Canadian historiography: thehistorical interaction of Canada withtherestof theworld asseen through thestudy ofCanadian revolutionary andideological connections. Thestimulating influence oftheOctober Revolution ontheCanadian mass movements of theyears1918-22 is oftennotedby well-known Canadian historians. Nevertheless, untilthe appearance of theabove book,Canadian historiography made nospecial effort tostudy thissubject. Besides, whocould treat thesubject better thanthespokesman ofthesocial class which experienced the influence of theRussian Revolution onthehighest possible level? Herewehave thehappy andrare coincidence oftheauthor being atthesame time aparticipatflag eyewitness anda thinking historian ofCanadian events ofhalfa century ago. Forthis reason, thebook byTimBuck isboth anhistorical work and agreat human document. Theauthor's attention isdirected attheinfluence oftheaccomplished revolutionin Russia andits ideason the socio-political mass movements in Canada. Twoaspects areconsistently singled outbytheauthor: thedirect response to thoevents inRussia and thelasting influences oftheRussian Revolution, espe- REVmWS 323 cially onthe labour movement. During the revolution, as well as inthe years that followed, thedirect influence ofitsvictory manifested itself particularly inthe radicalization ofthemasses, in theenthusiasm it provoked among theworking people, and intheacceleration ofpopular actions and democratic changes. The lasting feature ofitsinfluence resulted inthespeeding upofthe practical verificationandrevision of thattheoretical luggage brought intothenewepoch by Canadian socialists andintheideological rearmament oftheradical segments of theworking class. In contrast totheEuropean labour movement which long ago went through thefilness ofanarcho-syndicalism, theCanadian labour movement in theyears ofitselemental rise, especially in 1918-21, was toa considerable degree under thebanner of"revolutionary unionism" - theAmerican variety of anarcho-syndicalism. Owing to thetheoretical confusion andtheerrors of the socialists, theorganized labour movements experienced disorders andsplits. Out ofthis grew thenecessity forthecreation ofanew centre and fortheformulation ofnewtactics based onthenewtheory. Thebook concludes theanalysis ofthe ideological struggle within thelabour movement witha discussion ofhowthe radical groups ofworkers and sodalists organized themselves politically and in 1922founded theCanadian Worker s party(latertheCommunist party),formulating a neworientation onpolitical activity andtrade union unity. Tim Buckdoes notlimithimself to the changes withintheorganized labour movement. He alsonotesthe influence of the revolution on Canadian political life asa whole,andits effects on the country's economy, politics, andforeign relations. Owing tovitalchanges intheworld caused bytheRussian Revolution, thereturn by Canada totheoldforms in itsrelations withEngland became impossible ; forthetraditional parties it was nolonger possible toignore thedemands ofsocial changes. Theinfluence oftheOctober Revolution ontheCanadian bourgeoisie istraced bytheauthor tochanges inthepolicy oftheLiberal partyandits programme of 1919,which recognized thatthelabour movement hadbecome a factor inCanadian lifewhichcould notbeignored. As far as Canadian-Soviet relationsof that time are concerned, Tim Buck notes twotendencies: the first- therefusal to recognize Soviet Russia, andthe second - the recognition of theaccomplished revolution. He concludes thatthe second tendent gained ground underpressure of social movements. In this Y connection isexamined thestruggle oftheworking people against theintervention of Canadain SovietRussia, the establishment of the firstSovietTrade Missionin Canada,the movement "Canadian Friendsof SovietRussia," andthe workof the "Save the Chficlren Fund." The booktouches on manyotherquestions too.Writtenlaconically, andnot overloaded withfacts, it isdistinguished by...


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