The importance of environmental education as part of national strategies for sustainability is recognized throughout the world. In recent years, substantial efforts and many millions of shekels have been invested in developing environmental education programs in Israel’s schools. Unfortunately, outcomes in terms of pupils’ environmental literacy are far from satisfying. This article reviews the origins of environmental education in Israel, considers its evolution, describes the present situation within Israel’s educational system, as well as the major educational programs that are active in Israel today. Israel’s educational goals remain centered on security, economics, and industrial needs, without internalizing the significance of environment quality as a critical factor for healthy global and national futures as well as a prerequisite for a sustainable prosperity. The article reviews ideas for improving existing levels of environmental education and increasing the commitment of teachers and schools to inculcating related knowledge and values.