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10+ UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO QUARTERLY and there is an obituary of Wieser. But Schumpeter had more sympathy with the School of Lausanne; hence the excellent short paper on Walras and the longer one on Pareto; hence, too, the paper on Irving Fisher. The Cambridge School is represented by his fine centenary tribute to Marshall and his generous though critical essay on the death of Maynard Keynes. "As with Marx, it is possible to admire Keynes even though one may consider his social vision to be wrong and every one of his propositions to be misleading.... Whatever happens to the doctrine, the memory of the man will live-outlive both Keynesianism and the reaction to it" (p. 291). Two other Americans join Irving Fisher in this select gallery of great economists: Taussig and W. C. Mitchell. Of Taussig he says: "He was one of the first to realize that economic theory ... is not a storehouse of recipes or a philosophy, but a tool to analyze the patterns of real life" (p. 215). Mitchell, and the National Bureau of Economic Research which he founded and inspired, laboured to discover the "patterns." "The purpose of presenting the facts so as to confront them with theories stands out impressively" (p. 259). There remain two obituaries: of G. F. Knapp, and of Von Bortkiewicz. The former has had little influence on economics of the English-speaking world in spite of the translation of his book on money; the latter is best known for his criticism of the Marxian theory of value. In the essays are blended erudition and showmanship, sharp criticism and warm generosity, brilliant generalization and deep insight. All in all, this is a valuable book for economists, and an interesting book for a much wider circle. V. W. BLADEN Science and Values: Explorations in Philosophy and the Social Sciences. By JOHN A. IRVING. Toronto: Ryerson Press. 1952. Pp. xi, 148. $3.50 Science and Values is composed chiefly of articles and book reviews (some slightly revised) previously published in Canadian and American periodicals. It contains, in addition, the chapter which the author contributed to The Heritage of Western Culture (edited by R. C. Chalmers). Professor Irving has provided effective outlines of the topics and books under consideration. His critical comments are pene!rating and stimulating. Among the books which he has reviewed are: Patterns of Progress by Horace M. Kallen ; Conflicting Patterns of Thought by Karl Pribram; three UNESCO discussions of "world tensions" edited by SHORTER NOTICES 105 Hadley Cantril, Otto Klineberg, and George W. Kisker; The Reconstruction of Humanity by Pitrim A. Sorokin. There are discussions of "happiness" and "evolution" as ethical standards; the "comparative method" ; philosophical trends in Canada; democracy and communism . In writing these articles and reviews, Professor Irving was motivated by several convictions which he states in the opening pages of Science and Values and in the Epilogue. He believes that a "new reformation" is required in order to achieve a "reconstruction of humanity." In this reconstruction, philosophy must play a leading role. It should provide a statement of "universal," "ultimate" values. (Since science is neutral, it cannot provide ultimate values. ) Philosophy should stress the necessity of making use of the facts of psychology and sociology (as well as those of natural science, politics and economics). Professor Irving is convinced that the disregard of psychology and sociology is one of the greatest weaknesses in modern thought. A new "liberal education" should have as its core- the social sciences. However, the facts of the social sciences (as apprehended by techniques philosophically valid ) must be used in accordance with value ideals stated by philosophy. The old individualized, compartmentalized, type of education should be replaced by a socially oriented, organic type of approach. In stressing value, Professor Irving emphasizes the importance of recognizing that values function in a particular social situation and cannot be understood unless this is appreciated. It is to be regretted that some quotations are not identified. The author stresses the "exploratory" nature of these "chapters." It is to be hoped that Professor Irving will continue the project which is outlined and illustrated in this volume. A. H. JOHNSON BOOKS RECEIVED ALARCON, PEDRO ANTONIO DE. E1 sombrero de tres...


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