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88 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO QUARTERLY Hoover type of conservatism that at least it contrasts favourably with the contemporary Eisenhower type in its clarity and its freedom from mushy, emotional double-talk. But as one comes to the end of the third volume one feels that the great engineer has pretty well reached the state of that Quaker "Aunt" Hannah of whom he tells in the first pages of volume I. At one time, moved in meeting, Aunt Hannah rose to denounce a proposal of the youngsters that they should have singing in Sabbath school and use the meeting-house for recreational purposes. "She was bitter in her warnings of the wrath to come, and as a peroration made the prophecy that if these things came to pass 'this edifice dedicated to God will some day be transformed into a place of abomination.''' The nearest that Mr. Hoover can come to a state of cheerfulness at the end of his work, as he reflects that America was all but transformed into a place of abomination under the New Deal, is his conclusion: "that the American system has survived at all is proof of its vitality." A CLASSICAL FESTSCHRIFT" G. M. KIRKWOOD This is, I think, the first offering of "studies in honour" in the history of Canadian classical studies. Therefore even those who grumble that there are too many Festschriften in these days should be willing to accept this volume without cavil. And it will be generally agreed that there could be no more fitting recipient for this signal honour than Gilbert Norwood, whose vigorous scholarship exerts a profound influence on humane studies both in and outside of Canada, and whose interests span the field of classical antiquity and extend far beyond it too. To this range of interests (concrete evidence of which is provided by the list of Professor Norwood's published writings, pp. xixvii ) the general nature of the present collection neatly corresponds. There are essays on Greek literature (epic, lyric, tragedy, comedy, the novel, patristics), history, and philosophy; on Latin literature (epic, lyric, satire, the essay), and Roman history ; ,on ancient rdigion; on general topics ("Metaphor, Ancient and Modern," by H. J. Rose, and "On an Underestimated Feature of Language," by Joshua Whatmough ) ; and, closing the volume, two essays on later European literature , both with a classical tinge: on the devlopment of the Helena theme in Goethe's Faust, by Barker Fairley, and on Milton's Epita- *Studits in Honour of Gilbert Norwood. Edited by MARY E. WHITE. The Phoenix, Journal of the Classical Association of Canada, Supplementary Volume I; Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1952. Pp. xviii, 278. $5.00. REVIEWS 89 phium Damonis and Lyeidas and their relation to the tradition of pastoral poetry, by A. S. P. Woodhouse. The contributors are friends, colleagues, and former students of Professor Norwood. They include some of the most eminent and established names in contemporary classical scholarship, but there is a good representation also of younger Canadian scholars. A volume by different writers with different interests is bound to have the qualities of a miscellany, with its attendant disadvantages. The sensible organization by groups (Greek studies, Latin studies, essays on general and non-classical subjects) diminishes to some degree the pot-pourri effect, by giving the book as a whole a sort of panoramic continuity. A second inherent difficulty has been less satisfactorily solved: the combination of two conflicting, though separately laudable aims-a reasonable degree of inclusiveness (there are thirty essays), and the avoidance of excessive over-all length-has led to a rather extreme brevity in some cases. I do not intend a general criticism of the intrinsic quality of the short essays; but some of them are so restricted in scope as to be no more than notes on a single sentence or phrase. Such minutiae lack substance, however interesting they may be to the specialist. But there is far more in this book to admire than to complain of. I have already indicated the variety of its subject-matter; there is also a pleasing variety in the temper of the essays. There are some that any reader with an interest in literature, even if his...


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