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HUMANITIES 419 The essays are mainly concerned with fish and fisheries as befits a memorial to a man who did so much to arouse and to gUide enlightened interest in this great natural resource. Some of the essays are quite technical, of interest chiefly to specialists in this field of research. Others are aimed at a more general audience, particularly that of fishermen. A number should be read by every responsible citizen. Some very interesting and valuable facts appear in these pages, some also that are alarming, notably the warnings about water pollution, especially in Lake Erie. Of greatest general import are Professor Coventry's stirring description of the role of the naturalist in society, Dr. C. H. D. Clarke's presentation of a philosophy of conservation, Mr. Robert Turnbull's plea for a reasonable relationship between sportsmen and naturalists and the late editor's general picture of the condition of the fisheries in the Great Lakes. All in all we have here a thought-provoking volume that should be read by all those who have a real concern for man's relation with nature and for the problems that we face now and will increasingly meet in the future if we are to remain on living termS with our sustaining earth. There is more than fish in this book. Argen the Gull by Franklin Russell (McClelland and Stewart, pp. xii, 239, illus., $5.95) presents a semi-fictionalized life history of the herring gull (Larus argentatus) as a species. Utilizing the portrait of a single individual as an embodiment of the species the author traces the whole course of existence for this type of bird. Unfortunately, although this is done in spots with artistic insight and colourful deSCription there is on the whole far too much presumably informative detail forced into the narrative so that the book falls between two aims: that of being a novel, that of being an educational essay, and is effectively neither one. Again, as in his previous book, the author is so overly concerned with the idea of nature "red in tooth and claw" that he labours ponderously to get this idea across in massive doses. The result is indigestible. The idea behind the book is sound enough; it is a pity, therefore, that it wasn't treated with a lighter and defter hand. (RICHARD M. SAUNDERS) RELIGION Mr. K. Hamilton is not a sworn disciple of Tillich, and what he gives us in this book, The System and the Gospel: A Critique of Paul Tillich (London: SCM Press [Toronto: Ryerson), 1963, pp. 247, $6.00), is 420 LEITERS IN CANADA: 1964 not an exposition, but an indication of what he considers the weak points of the Tillichian scheme. He fully admits the stature and significance of Tillich in the present theological debate. No other theologian is rated as highly among philosophers. No one has insisted more powerfully than Tillich that theology must be apologetic as well as kerygmatic. This can be generously appreCiated, even if we agree with Hamilton that Tillich's apology for the faith is not successful, because it substitutes for the traditional faith an idealist "system." The main points at which Hamilton finds Tillich's thought unsatisfactory are: 1. Ambiguity, not so much of total meaning as of key terms: a simple word may carry a new technical sense in the light of the system. 2. Tillich's system is so planned in advance that acceptance of the Christian Kerygma means a re-defining of it so that it fits easily into the system. But then it has ceased to be traditional Christianity or the thought of the New Testament. This is Hamilton's main criticism: there is fundamental disparity between the system and the Gospel. The system is not derived from religiOUS history and experience, either. Explaining Christianity means for Tillich bringing it into line with his ontological axioms. 3. The affirmation of the identity of thinking and being (God = being = rationality) is too rationalist-idealist. Theology and philosophy both aim at knowledge of God, philosophy at God as known by reason (primary revelation), theology at God as mystery known through rites and symbols (secondary revelation). This is not...


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