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The names of Chromatius and Jovinus are mentioned twice by Augustine in the list of the fourteen bishops who acquitted Pelagius at the synod of Diospolis in 415 c.e . At the end of an in-depth prosopographical investigation, the hypothesis is proposed that Jovinus was the bishop of Ascalon, who had previously been bishop of Padua, and that Chromatius was the famous bishop of Aquileia. Consequently, if this is true, contrary to the current opinion, Chromatius did not die in 407 c.e ., but was still alive in 415 c.e ., and his credibility as a Catholic bishop might have been seriously compromised in the eyes of both Augustine and Jerome precisely because of his participation in the synod of Diospolis in defence of Pelagius. This might also explain the shipwreck of his works. Many things are still wrapped in darkness, but, with all due caution, this essay will hopefully shed fresh light and foster new research on this intricate matter.