This study examines gender perceptions and attitudes of Arab male and female teachers in Israel. This quantitative study includes 302 Arab Muslim male and female teachers in the Arab education system. The results show that participants believe that there is no gender equality in Arab society in Israel, a conviction stronger among male teachers. Transition of Arab society from traditional to modern society has not eliminated the patriarchal regime. Improved education of women and their professional promotion have not ensured gender equality. Changes in the status of Arab women and attitudes toward their participation in the labor force are due not to changes in the social structure of Arab society but to economic structural constraints at the national level.